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HPSS Seminars - archive

HPSS Seminars - archive

The Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure - seminar series: archive

Return to the list of forthcoming seminars.

# Monday 20th February 2017, 1.00pm - James Perry (Lancaster)
Foreign-born migrants in the Integrated Census Microdata, 1851-1911
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 6th February 2017, 1.00pm - Carry van Lieshout (Cambridge)
Drainage and water supply in 18th century London
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 23rd January 2017, 1.00pm - Diego Carnevale (Birkbeck)
Placing the dead in 18th century European metropolis: institutions, economy, beliefs
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Studying burials, broadly defined, allows a comprehensive perspective on the policies and practices adopted by early modern societies to satisfy an important need of the community. This need is material and immaterial at the same time: in fact, every city faced the attempt to reconcile logistical, economical, juridical, sanitary and spiritual requirements in properly disposing of the dead. Can we define as a “public” service the system of rules and means putted in place to satisfy this need?

Funerals and burials involved a large and diverse number of actors (government, city authorities, Church, confraternities, corporations, and many individuals such as artisans, undertakers, tradesmen, etc.) who worked according to a complex system of formal regulations and customary practices built around the need to give everyone a proper burial.

I will show how the interactions between these actors structured a service for the community in two urban realities of 18th century Europe: Naples and Paris. For most of the operators, such as the secular clergy, this activity was an important source of privileges and financial support, becoming a key element of their concrete action on urban space. Following the two examples of Naples and Paris, I will finally discuss the opportunity to extend the comparison to London during the same period.

# Monday 23rd May 2016, 1.00pm - Frederik Pedersen (University of Aberdeen)
White Lies and Alibis: Litigants, Lawyers and Law in Fourteenth-Century York Marriage Disputes
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 16th May 2016, 1.00pm - Pavla Jirkova (CERGE-EI, Prague)
Consignatio Hoc Calamitoso Tempore Pestis: Mortality Specifics of the Plague Year 1680 in Bohemia
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 9th May 2016, 1.00pm - Joseph Molitoris (University of Copenhagen)
Feeling the Squeeze: The Effect of Birth Spacing on Infant and Child Mortality during the Demographic Transition
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

A negative association between birth spacing and infant and child mortality has been consistently identified within modern populations in developing countries. Generally speaking, children born following shorter birth intervals have been found to have higher mortality (Hobcraft, McDonald, & Rutstein, 1985; Kozuki et al., 2013; Rutstein, 2005). The reasons for this association are unclear, however. Leading hypotheses attempt to explain these differences as a result of maternal depletion, sibling competition, sibling contagion, or unobserved maternal factors that simultaneously influence fertility and infant mortality (e.g. inadequate breastfeeding practices), but none has attained overwhelming support. This study contributes to this body of research in a few important ways. First, it examines this association in a historical context, which has largely been ignored (see Pebley, Hermalin, & Knodel, 1991 for a notable exception). The data come from the Roteman Database, a longitudinal register kept for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926. Second, and more importantly, it attempts to isolate some of the hypothesized causal mechanisms by studying variation within families using models that control for maternal fixed-effects thereby eliminating the potential for compositional differences among mothers to drive this relationship. Results suggest that the relationship between preceding interval length and mortality holds even when accounting for unobservable maternal factors. Shorter intervals had the largest impact on post-neonatal and early childhood (age 1-4) mortality, yet had rather small influence on neonatal mortality. No relationship between preceding interval length and older child (age 5-9) mortality could be identified. The importance of the sibling competition and sibling contagion hypotheses were then assessed by exploiting variation in the timing of deaths among previously born children. The results point to greater importance of sibling competition in the prenatal period, but a greater role for sibling contagion in the postnatal period.

# Monday 15th February 2016, 1.00pm - Joe Day (Cambridge Group, University of Cambridge)
A Match Made in...Middlesbrough? Migration and the Marriage Market in the Late Nineteenth Century
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 8th February 2016, 1.00pm - Mikolaj Szoltysek (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology)
Did family matter? Family systems, patriarchy, and human capital inequalities in historical Europe
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 13th July 2015, 12.10pm - Professor Deng Hui, Peking University
Please note earlier start time of 12.10pm. Sandwiches and fruit will be available at the start.
Regional Man-land Relationship in the Northern Chinese Frontier in History
Venue: Seminar Room, Main Geography Department Building, Downing Place

The Ancient northern Chinese frontier zone comprises all or part of seven modern Chinese provinces, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, in an arc spanning more than 2,000 km and ranging from the deserts of Central Asia to the Manchurian forests. Indeed the northern frontier regions have gained near-mythic proportion in Chinese history and culture. Today three dimensions of the North China frontier are particularly important: its geopolitical significance along the Mongolian, Russian borders; its environmental fragility; and its multicultural population and heritage. A historical geography of this region will provide an important and fundamental basis for contemporary understanding and management of regional issues concerning peoples and environments.

Academic research on the northern frontier regions and their significance in Chinese history and development became significant with the landmark studies of Owen Lattimore in the 1920s and 1930s. Lattimore described a frontier increasingly polarized between two vastly different cultures: the Chinese realm of walled cities with intensive, sedentary agriculture and the nomadic world of the steppe with extensive, mobile economy— neither in the long run, able to subdue the other—-separated by the Great Wall, and a transitional zone took shape between the two groups of peoples where political and cultural affiliation vacillated in response to overall geopolitical advantage. Lattimore’s work not only contributed to a better understanding of China, but added new dimensions to world-wide study of frontiers as well.

Seven decades later, in changed intellectual circumstances and with a wealth of new empirical research, the old issue seems worth reopening. The field of historical geography provides a rich and diverse context for studies of frontier history. Historical geographers particularly concerned with understanding historical trends in human use of the environment, environmental history, and settlement patterns. Through an integration of natural science, social science and humanities methodologies, we could be able to achieve a broad-ranging and comprehensive analysis which maintains relevance to contemporary environmental and settlement issues. Thus historical geography serves as a center for the research, which will then draw on multidisciplinary research works in related fields such as history, archeology, and environmental science. Within this broad framework, the research plan will mainly focus on the following four parts: the ecology of frontiers, man-land relationship in history, driving factors behind the landscape changes, and the frontiers and social changes in history.

# Monday 1st June 2015, 1.00pm - Dr Isabelle Devos (Ghent University)
Female labourers in early nineteenth-century rural Flanders. What's in a name?
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 18th May 2015, 1.00pm - Dr Eric Schneider (University of Sussex)
The influence of infant feeding and disease morbidity on children's growth: evidence from the London Foundling Hospital, 1893-1919
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 9th February 2015, 1.00pm - Dr Paul Puschmann (University of Leuven)
Revisiting the Urban Graveyard Debate: An analysis of mortality differences between natives and migrants in North-Western European port cities: Antwerp, Rotterdam and Stockholm, 1850-1930
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 2nd February 2015, 1.00pm - Hannaliis Jaadla (Tallinn University)
The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality in Tartu (Estonia), 1897-1900
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 9th June 2014, 1.00pm - Stefan Öberg (University of Gothenburg)
Long-term changes in sickness among young men in Sweden, 1851-1930: Evidence from military sources
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 12th May 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Antonio Cámara (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
The implications of the relationship between height and mortality for historical demography. Evidence from contextual and individual approaches in 19th-Century Spain
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 28th April 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Samantha Williams (Cambridge)
The maintenance of bastard children in London, 1770-1834
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 24th February 2014, 1.00pm - Professor Janet McCalman and Dr Rebecca Kippen (University of Melbourne)
What happened to them? Life courses of convicts transported to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) 1812-1852
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 20th January 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Andrew Hinde (University of Southampton)
Mortality in English market towns during the 'parish register era', c1550 - c1825
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 10th June 2013, 12.45pm - Eric Schneider, Department of Economics, University of Oxford
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
Real wages and the household: Quantifying the economy of makeshifts of the poor in 18th-century England
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 20th May 2013, 12.45pm - Dr Emmanuel Garnier, University of Caen
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
The volcano Laki in 1783: a serial killer? A French-English comparison
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abruptly, in April 2010, airlines companies, insurers and politicians discovered that volcanic ash from Iceland could disrupt air traffic throughout western Europe. Like other recent natural disaster (Atlantic storm Xynthia in 2010, the tsunami in Japon in 2011), this was a totally ‘new’ and completely unexpected scenario. However, British and French archives showed that this event was perfectly conceivable. Indeed, on 8 June 1783, the Icelandic volcano Laki entered an eruptive phase lasting nearly a year, producing massive amounts of smoke which, within hours, was observed everywhere in Northern Europe. These ‘sulfurous fogs’, in addition to terrorizing the population, were quickly suspected of being harmful to health.
Based on a comparative approach of classic historical sources as parish registers (Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Normandy, the North of France), medical archives of the Société royale de médecine, the Académie royale des Sciences of Paris and the Royal Society of London as well as English and French meteorological Journals, this work uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a new perspective on the precise chronology of this health disaster and its climatic and social contexte on a transnational scale.

# Monday 13th May 2013, 12.45pm - Professor Tim Guinnane, Department of Economics, Yale University
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
Sample-selection bias in the historical heights literature
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

An extensive literature uses anthropometric measures, typically heights, to draw inferences about living standards in the past. This literature’s influence reaches beyond economic history; the results of historical heights research appear as crucial components in development economics and related fields. The historical heights literature often relies on micro-samples drawn from sub-populations that are themselves selected: examples include volunteer soldiers, prisoners, and runaway slaves, among others. Contributors to the heights literature sometimes acknowledge that their samples might not be random draws from the population cohorts in question, but rely on normality alone to correct for potential selection into the sample. We use a simple Roy model to show that selection cannot be resolved simply by augmenting truncated samples for left-tail shortfall. Statistical tests for departures from normality cannot detect selection in Monte Carlo exercises for small to moderate levels of self-selection, obviating a standard test for selection in the heights literature. We show strong evidence of selection using micro-data on the heights of British soldiers in the late eighteen and nineteenth centuries. Consequently, widely accepted results in the literature may not reflect variations in living standards during a soldier’s formative years; observed heights could be predominantly determined by the process determining selection into the sample. A survey of the current historical heights literature illustrates the problem for the three most common sources: military personnel, slaves, and prisoners.

http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2261335

# Monday 6th May 2013, 12.45pm - Dr Hiroaki Muppy Matsuura, School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies, University of Oxford
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
State Constitutional Commitment to Health and Health Care and Population Health Outcomes: Evidence from Historical U.S. Data
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 11th March 2013, 12.45pm - Prof. Jeremy Boulton, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Newcastle
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
Clerical policy and local population studies: christening fees in Georgian Westminster
Venue: Seminar Room, Main Building, Dept of Geography

Abstract not available

# Monday 28th January 2013, 12.45pm - Dr Amornrat Bunnag, Academic Officer, Centre of Doctrine and Strategic Development, Army Training Command, Bangkok.
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
Populating 19th century Siam: war/capture/resettlement versus the recruitment of free labour in a southeast Asian demographic system
Venue: Seminar Room, Main Building, Dept of Geography

The Kingdom of Siam is one of several important Southeast Asian states that formed around the 12th century and continued in various forms to the present. Population numbers in the Siamese Kingdom are mostly a matter of conjecture since virtually all records were destroyed in the sacking of Ayudhya in 1767 by Burmese armies. Even for the time since the kingdom was reestablished and the Chakri Dynasty formed in 1782, the record is fragmented and incomplete throughout the 19th century and until about 1920 (a census was conducted in 1909-1910, and vital registration began in 1920). Nineteenth century demography is known largely by two means: population estimates (the whole kingdom, and sometimes for certain geographic areas, or for language groups) reported by contemporary foreign “travelers” (ambassadors, businessmen, preachers and the like) based on what they could glean from the royal records without actually seeing them. The resulting population estimates are so inconsistent that some investigators have posited their own series of population totals based on extrapolations backward from the time series that began in 1920.

This work of extrapolation, if it is to be more than merely mechanical curve fitting of some sort, requires substantive assumptions about fertility and mortality patterns and levels, and these have always been founded upon prevailing views of typical “developing country” situations. That is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, fertility has always been assumed to have been rather high (TFR at 6 or greater) and mortality at levels high enough to be consistent with that and population growth rates.

However, in the case of Siam a new reading of the existing literature and a new look at the archival evidence spanning the long 19th century suggests an alternative and quite different scenario. The speaker has carried out extensive research in the Kingdom’s archives, and offers a view of population changes based upon indirect methods of analysis (demographic models) linked with political, socioeconomic, and cultural evidence. Two contrasting scenarios regarding population and the components of population changes were first established based on the historical evidence. Then these scenarios were modeled using ‘POPULATE’, a software program that expresses the mathematics of the population renewal equation and the method of Generalized Inverse Projection. The results were then judged on their internal consistency and compared with other evidence.

These scenarios—a Migration-Based Demographic System (MDS) scenario and a Classic Demographic Transition (CDT) scenario–suggest alternate paths of fertility, mortality, and migration between 1782 and 1960. In the migration-based scenario fertility is at a moderate level (held down by the disturbances of frequent warfare), mortality is high, and migration maintains the population balance. This scenario matches very well with historical events in the Bangkok Period including dramatic political, socioeconomic and cultural changes. Among these was the termination around 1850 of a warfare based system of forced population resettlement, and the rapid rise thereafter of spontaneous in-migration from neighboring territories and from Southern China, in response to the dramatic expansion of commercial wet-rice agriculture.

The issues discussed and the alternative models presented highlight the importance of any empirical, archival evidence for the 19th century that can be uncovered. The speaker will describe her work with a set of household-based corvee registers, the Tabien Hangwow, covering selected areas and years. These have not been examined previously for demographic purposes.

# Monday 25th June 2012, 12.00pm - ’ Paul Sharp (University of Southern Denmark), Nina Boberg-Fazlic & Jacob Weisdorf (University of Copenhagen)
Please note that this extended seminar will run from 12 till 3pm. There will be two papers with a break for sandwiches 1.15 to 1.45.
(1) ‘New findings from the family reconstitution data.’ and (2) ‘Nothing but a poor man with money? The changing fertility decisions of the rich before the English demographic transition.’
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

The first paper will present an overview of a number of papers using the Group reconstitutions: ‘Birth spacing’, Jacob Weisdorf, Marc Klemp, Francesco Cinnirella; ‘The child QQ trade-off’, Jacob Weisdorf, Marc Klemp; ‘Survival of the richest’, Jacob Weisdorf, Nina Boberg-Fazlic, Paul Sharp; ‘Lasting damage’, Jacob Weisdorf, Marc Klemp; ‘Human capital’, Jacob Weisdorf, Nina Boberg-Fazlic.
The second paper will present one of the papers more fully.

# Monday 14th May 2012, 1.00pm - Professor Marjorie McIntosh (University of Colorado)
*Please note this seminar will start at the later time of 1 p.m.
Poor Relief and Community in Elizabethan Hadleigh
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 30th April 2012, 12.45pm - Eric Schneider (Oxford University)
Real Wages and the Family: Adjusting Real Wages to Changing Demography in Pre-Modern England
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 13th February 2012, 12.45pm - Dr. Peter Kitson (Cambridge Group)
Sandwiches and fruit are available from 12:30 p.m.
‘Industrialisation and the Changing Mortality Environment in an English Community, c. 1600-1684’
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 30th January 2012, 12.45pm - Dr. Simon Szreter
Sandwiches and fruit are available from 12:30.
The prevalence of venereal diseases in 1913. Who was right? Christabel Pankhurst or the Royal Commission?
Venue: HB101, Sir William Hardy Building Seminar Room

Abstract not available

# Monday 16th May 2011, 12.45pm - Professor Michael Anderson, University of Edinburgh
Sandwiches available from 12:30
Illusions of exactness: counting Scotland's population before 1801
Venue: Sir William Hardy Building, HB101

Abstract not available

# Monday 7th March 2011, 12.45pm - Tim Leunig and Alex Klein (LSE)
Does Gibrat’s Law hold for all times and all places? A study of the growth of British cities prior to 1913
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

# Monday 21st February 2011, 12.45pm - Morgan Kelly and Cormac Ó Gráda (University College Dublin)
English Living Standards and Mortality since the Middle Ages
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

# Monday 7th February 2011, 12.00am - Jelle van Lottum (Cambridge Group)
Cancelled. This talk will be re-scheduled for the Easter term.
Contemporary perceptions of international migrants in England and the Dutch Republic during the 17th and 18th centuries
Venue: Venue to be confirmed

Abstract not available

# Monday 27th November 2006, 1.00pm - Dr Aravindra Guntupalli (University of Tübingen)
Gender inequality and change in stature in India during the Twentieth Century
Venue: Room 121, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

# Monday 13th November 2006, 1.00pm - Tim Leunig (London School of Economics)
Cities, markets and the sea: Explaining the ups and downs of height in early nineteenth century England and Wales
Venue: Room 121, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

# Monday 30th October 2006, 1.00pm - Richard Wall (University of Essex)
Widows, wills and economic assets in pre-industrial Britain
Venue: Room 121, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

# Monday 16th October 2006, 1.00pm - Professor Sam Cohn (University of Glasgow)
Household and plague in early modern Italy
Venue: Room 121, Sir William Hardy Building

Abstract not available

Graduate Workshops in Economic and Social History: archive

Return to the list of forthcoming seminars.

# Monday 6th March 2017, 12.30pm - Speaker to be confirmed
MPhil Presentations Part II
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 27th February 2017, 12.30pm - Speaker to be confirmed
MPhil Presentations Part I
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 13th February 2017, 12.30pm - Francisco Beltrán Tapia (Cambridge)
Where are the missing girls? Gender discrimination in 19th-century Spain
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 30th January 2017, 12.30pm - Ana Avino-de-Pablo (Ghent)
The Treaty of Westminster: a turning point for the Anglo Iberian trade in the late 15th century?
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 28th November 2016, 12.30pm - Kathryn Gary (Lund University)
Men's daily and annual wages in early modern Sweden
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 21st November 2016, 12.30pm - Walter Jansson (University of Cambridge)
Finance and regional growth in Britain, 1870-1913
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 14th November 2016, 12.30pm - Simon Gallagher (University of Cambridge)
Family structure and the admission of children to the workhouse in post-famine Ireland
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 7th November 2016, 12.30pm - Niccolò Serri (University of Cambridge)
Welfare and industrial conflict in the Italian automobile industry, 1968-1975
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 31st October 2016, 12.30pm - Luis Almenar (University of Valencia)
Eating and drinking as a medieval peasant. Innovations in table manners in late medieval rural Valencia
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 24th October 2016, 12.30pm - Cheng Yang (University of Cambridge)
Occupational structure of late Imperial China, 1738-1899
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 17th October 2016, 12.30pm - Alain Naef (University of Cambridge)
Does sterilised central bank intervention have long term effects on exchange rate? The case of the British Exchange Equalisation Account, 1952-1972
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 10th October 2016, 12.30pm - Spike Gibbs (University of Cambridge)
Patterns of manorial office holding at late medieval and early modern Little Downham, 1300-1600
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 29th February 2016, 12.30pm - Leslie Chang, Jacapo Satori, Ryan Ripamonti, Emiliano Travieso, and Aditya Basrur (University of Cambridge)
M. Phil Presentations II. Financial and Business History
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 22nd February 2016, 12.30pm - Daniel Allemann, Stephanie Ternullo, Rosa Hodgkin, Connor Lempriere, and Callum Easton (University of Cambridge)
M.Phil Presentations I. Economics, Politics and Policy
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 25th January 2016, 12.30pm - Sebastian Keibek (University of Cambridge)
The male occupational structure of England and Wales, 1700-1850
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 18th January 2016, 12.30pm - Paco Ruzzante (University of Cambridge)
Beveridge calling: The social insurance and allied services and the Mediterranean welfare model, 1942-1950s
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 30th November 2015, 12.30pm - Alice Dolan (Institute of Historical Research)
What was linen? Flax and hemp at home and work in 18th-century England
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 23rd November 2015, 12.30pm - Josh Ivinson (Cambridge)
The local and transnational organisation of the nascent Newfoundland dry cod trade, 1550-1650
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 16th November 2015, 12.30pm - Nikita Dmtriev (Pantheon-Sorbonne)
Land market and the long 12th century transformation in Foligno county
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 9th November 2015, 12.30pm - Craig McMahon (Cambridge)
A comparative analysis of payday lending in America and Britain, 1900-1930s
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 2nd November 2015, 12.30pm - Partha Shil (Cambridge)
Recruitment of constabulary labour in colonial Bengal 1861-1900
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 26th October 2015, 12.30pm - Toby Salisbury (Cambridge)
Poaching and sedition in thirteenth century England
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 19th October 2015, 12.30pm - Miguel Morin (Cambridge)
Adapting to workplace technological change over the long run: Evidence from US longitudinal data
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 12th October 2015, 12.30pm - Mike Schraer (Cambridge)
Land and credit in the asset allocations of the Jews in late 14th-century Zaragoza
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 9th March 2015, 12.30pm - Alexandra Digby/Neil Gandhi (Cambridge)
MPhil Presentations
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 2nd March 2015, 12.30pm - Ellen Nye/Tim Rudnicki/Cheng Yang (Cambridge)
MPhil Presentations
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 26th January 2015, 12.30pm - Marta Musso (Cambridge)
The Oil Industry in the Algerian Decolonisation Process
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 1st December 2014, 12.30pm - Hillary Taylor (Yale)
The Affective Economy of Social Relations in Early Modern England
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 24th November 2014, 12.30pm - Stephen Pierpoint (Cambridge)
The Fiscal-Military State and the Land Tax - Observations from Kent and London
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 17th November 2014, 12.30pm - Corinne Boter (Wageningen)
Ideal vs Reality? The Ideal of the Breadwinner-Homemaker Household in Industrializing Regions in the Netherlands, ca. 1890
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 3rd November 2014, 12.30pm - Mingjie Xu (Cambridge)
Disorder and Rebellion in Cambridgeshire in 1381
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 27th October 2014, 12.30pm - Imogen Wedd (Cambridge)
Reconstructing Yeoman Communities in Early Modern Kent
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 20th October 2014, 12.30pm - Keith Sugden (Cambridge)
Note change of speaker
The impact of mechanization upon female and male employment in the English textile industry, circa 1780-1851
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 13th October 2014, 12.30pm - Carolyn Dougherty (York)
Note change of start time: 12.30pm
Carrying Trade
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 10th March 2014, 1.00pm - Sophie McGeevor (Cambridge)
What can autobiographies tell us about women's time-use in 19th century England?
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 17th February 2014, 1.00pm - Vellore Arti (Oxford)
"The Dust Was Long in Settling": Human Capital and the Lasting Impact of the American Dust Bowl
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 3rd February 2014, 1.00pm - Caroline Rusterholtz (University of Fribourg)
The transformation of the costs of children and its impact on reproductive behaviour: a comparative analysis of the second demographic transition in Switzerland
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 27th January 2014, 1.00pm - Sebastian Keibek (Cambridge)
Probate records as a source of occupational information
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 2nd December 2013, 1.00pm - Lyn Boothman (Cambridge)
Office holding, social status and stability in a small town, 1661-1861
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 25th November 2013, 1.00pm - Simon Abernethy (Cambridge)
Deceptive data? The New Survey of London Life and Labour, 1928-31
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 18th November 2013, 1.00pm - Edmond Smith (Cambridge)
The multiplicitous networks of the East India Company, 1599-1603
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 11th November 2013, 1.00pm - Adam Crymble (Cambridge)
Measuring Immigrant Crime in London: The Irish 1801-1820
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 4th November 2013, 1.00pm - Stephen Pierpoint (Cambridge)
17th & 18th century land taxes in England; 'hardly changed since the middle ages' or cutting edge technology. A Kent case study
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 28th October 2013, 1.00pm - Ellen Potter (Cambridge)
Female employment in the nineteenth century censuses: Methods, pitfalls, and prostitutes
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 21st October 2013, 1.00pm - Xuesheng You (Cambridge)
'Kin-servant' in 1881 British Census Enumerators' Books: Actual Work or Random Enumeration
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 14th October 2013, 1.00pm - Anne Hanley (Cambridge)
Venereology at the Polyclinic, 1899-1914
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Abstract not available

# Monday 17th June 2013, 1.00pm - Keith Sugden, Cambridge
The Male Occupational Structure of Norwich, circa 1720-1841: Evidence from Quarter Session and Other Records
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

The timing of the decline of the Norwich stuffs industry remains the subject of debate. Some believed it occurred during the eighteenth century, some think it held on until well into the nineteenth, post mechanization of worsted manufacture. This paper utilizes a number of occupational sources to pin down the date in an attempt to throw some light onto the discussion.

# Monday 25th February 2013, 1.00pm - Atiyab Sultan
Impoverishing development? Institution-building in Colonial Punjab (1849-1947)
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

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# Monday 19th November 2012, 1.00pm - Xuesheng You (Cambridge Group)
Widows' Work: Some Evidence from the 1881 Census Enumerators' Books
Venue: Seminar room, Departement of Geography main building, Downing Site

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# Monday 29th October 2012, 1.00pm - Charles Read (Cambridge)
The Irish Famine: Britain’s Biggest Economic Policy Failure?
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

“The Almighty, indeed, sent the potato blight, but the English created the Famine”. (John Mitchel) Nationalist and revisionist historians have furiously debated British culpability for the famine, instead of examining modern Britain’s worst social and economic disaster in terms of economic policy. This paper takes this new approach to topic, arguing that instead of the British running a “laissez-faire” policy towards the famine, there was a consistent relief policy based on supply-side ideas popular at the time. But these policies misunderstood the underlying cause of the famine, a collapse in monetary incomes, which instead accidentally made Ireland’s problems in the 1840s much worse.

# Monday 22nd October 2012, 1.00pm - Kate Boehme (Cambridge)
Linking Business and Philanthropy: The Social Concerns and Philanthropic Behaviours of Bombay's Mercantile Elite, 1845-1870
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

In the nineteenth century, Bombay became a hub for the export of raw Indian goods such as opium and cotton to overseas locations across the Indian Ocean and to as far away as China. In particular, the dramatic increase in commercial activities brought about by the trade with China facilitated the emergence of a powerful Indian merchant class that possessed great wealth and exerted considerable influence in local political and social matters. This group has been credited by some historians as engaging in some of the earliest coordinated public activity in India and, later in the century, developed coherent economically nationalist discourse. In this paper I will explore the development of this group’s civic mindedness and emerging focus on “Indian” issues through the lens of their philanthropic activities. Through an analysis of their patterns of giving it is possible to gain a greater understanding of how such donations were made through the cooperative efforts of Indian mercantilists from a number of different caste backgrounds, as well as how such giving indicated a growing concern with the general welfare of the Indian community in Bombay.

# Monday 28th May 2012, 12.45pm - Sandra de la Torre Gonzalo (University of Zaragoza)
Business and politics in late medieval Iberia: mercantile elites in the Kingdom of Aragon (1380-1430)
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

Recent works on late-medieval commerce in the Crown of Aragon have made clear the importance of a group of businessmen settled in Zaragoza, the capital of the kingdom of Aragon. At the end of the fourteenth century and beginning of the fifteenth, this small group of businessmen intervened on a large scale in the financing of the state, principally through the market of the institutional public debt and hiring the commercial taxes of the kingdom. Their important businesses suppose the mobilization of very high sums of money and the formation of leading commercial companies that promote mercantile and family connections that spread over the whole kingdom and the Crown from the interior of the Peninsula and the south of France towards the Mediterranean Sea.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and an analysis of the political role of this financial and commercial elite. Therefore, we are interested in the targets and the strategies of these people, and their capacity for political performance, expressed in their patrimonies (financial, mercantile, territorial), professional activities, family behaviors and the construction of social networks.
My prosopographical research offers an intermediate approach between the studies on the individual protagonists and the large social groups, and has proved its efficiency in analyzing dispersed and fragmentary sources like the ones we have at our disposal.

# Monday 21st May 2012, 12.45pm - Irene Haycock (University of Cambridge)
Aspects of Agrarian Change in South Staffordshire: A Case Study of Kingswinford, 1650 to 1750
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

This paper examines the nature and extent of agrarian change and early industrial change in the parish of Kingswinford, south Staffordshire (now the West Midlands) in the early modern period. It addresses the dearth of work on pastoral regions as opposed to the much studied arable eastern and southern areas of England. Staffordshire is a county renowned for its precocious early population growth, and early industrial development in minerals such as coal, iron, metal-wares, and glass. It is a classic area of by-employment where, according to Thirsk, farming households took up domestic manufacture when work was slack. Using probate documents (and parish registers for a wider context) a quantitative analysis finds that the wealth of the whole sample of the parish and that of farmers and of the by-employed significantly decreased over time; the wealth-gap between the farmers and industrialists increasingly narrowed. The incentive to become by-employed must lie with the industrialists rather than with farming households, since the farmers were the richer of the two according to gross inventory wealth. However, there were proportionately less of the inventoried population practising by-employment as time progressed.
With regard to changing farming patterns in a predominately pastoral region, the proportions of those involved in mixed farming and keeping livestock significantly decreased over time, particularly in sheep husbandry. The proportion of those farming, in terms of both those with an appropriate occupational designator or with the accoutrements of husbandry appraised in an inventory, appeared to be decreasing in the area with reasons for this decline difficult to determine.

# Monday 5th March 2012, 12.45pm - Richard Jones (University of Cambridge)
The Curious Case of Yorkshire Luddism
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

This argument-driven paper will probe the industrial precedents and
cultural legacy of machine breaking in the West Riding of Yorkshire during
the spring of 1812. The central analysis will characterise Luddism as a
conservative economic and social phenomenon with a provenance in the sense
of entitlement found in earlier trade societies, and argue against seeing
the movement as part of the broader sweep of nineteenth-century political
development.

Although the paper will focus on Luddism in Yorkshire, it will be argued
that the analysis and conclusions can be (substantively) extended to the
other industrial regions in which unrest occurred. A range of evidential
classes will be harnessed in support of this argument, including Luddite
letters, prosecution papers from the Home Office and Treasury Solicitor
deposits at Kew, judicial records from Yorkshire, and a corpus of regional
fiction.

# Monday 27th February 2012, 12.45pm - David Filtness (University of Cambridge)
Schools of Industry and Habits of Industriousness: Making childhood pay in the early Nineteenth Century
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

Amid the wars and economic distress of the late Eighteenth and
early Nineteenth centuries, an influential paradigm shift was occurring
whereby a governing ethic of paternalistic moral economy transitioned into
one of political economy, entailing a discursive re-imagining of the poor
as those who existed in a condition of poverty rather than as individuals
who were poor. This subtle recalibration of the terms of the poor-law
debate drew on recent trends casting the poor as the subject of statistics;
constituting a quantifiable and aggregated morass that could be tamed by
the application of macro-economic principles and the realisation of
self-responsibility on the part of the poor. Nowhere was this discourse
more evidenced or more influential than as it pertained to the experience
of childhood and the agency of children. Particular emphasis was placed on
the economic contribution of youngsters when as children and as future
adults, with a raft of literature detailing policies and institutions for
putting them to work. Children should be bred up into habits of industry’
appropriate to their station, placed into workhouses or ‘schools of
industry’ so as to contribute to their upkeep, and at all times supervised
and molded into ‘useful’ citizens. Impassioned rhetoric espousing the
economic exploitation of children was homologous to that exhorting that the
poor be put to work; such discourse was obsessed with economy and
cost-effectiveness, and there was no space for idle or relaxed youths in
such a schema. By examining the school of industry movement and its
contextualising literature we can understand better the social effects of
industrialisation and the Victorian moralities of self-help and charity
that did so much to pattern subsequent notions of Britishness.

# Monday 6th February 2012, 12.45pm - Lyn Boothman (University of Cambridge)
Studying the Stayers: occupation, kin links and stability
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

my PhD research examines the stable population of one Suffolk parish, Long Melford, from 1661-1861. This presentation will consider the relationship between occupation, social status, kin links and stability in the 1831-61 period and, if there’s time, relate this to evidence of social status and kin links in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

# Monday 28th November 2011, 1.00pm - Mingjie Xu (University of Cambridge)
The Revolt in Rural Cambridgeshire in 1381
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

The events of June in 1381 confronted the English government with a big scale in London. At the same time other areas similarly witnessed outbursts of concerted violent protest against authority. This paper offers an account of the events in rural Cambridgeshire. The account considers the violent incidents in the county, including their chronological and geographical distribution and various forms of violence, which establishes that the scale of the revolt in this region is limited. It also explores the rebels involved in the rebellion, including their social composition, organisation and aims, which show local peculiarities of the revolt in this county. This study, together with recent local studies on the revolt, reveals the complexities of the 1381 Revolt, which is further utilized to demonstrate the limitations of the extant two conflicting interpretations of the revolt.

# Monday 7th November 2011, 1.00pm - Simon Abernethy (University of Cambridge)
Women and Children First: A Brief Look at Working Class Women and Children Commuters in London in the 1890s and 1900s
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

When H.J. Dyos wrote his article ‘Workmen’s fares in south London 1860 – 1914’ he noted that a key problem for working class suburbanisation was the lack of subsidiary employment for women in the suburbs. This he claimed retarded working class migration from the centre. However, an examination of records from the London County Council and the Court of the Railway and Canal Commission show a small but significant number of working class women and children living in the suburbs and using workmen’s trains to get to employment in the centre. This paper examines how prevalent this practise was, the difficulty involved, and uses the limited sources available to give an indication of pay and employment.

# Monday 17th October 2011, 1.00pm - Joe Day (Cambridge Group, University of Cambridge)
"Go --West-- North-East Young Man!" Male & Female Migration in 1881
Venue: Room 101, Sir William Hardy Building, Downing Site

Abstract not available

Quantitative History Seminar: archive

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# Monday 6th June 2016, 1.00pm - Cristiano Ristuccia (Cambridge)
Saved by the British Empire: how the US escaped the Great Depression
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

This paper presents a new set of data on installed machine-tools in the metalworking sector that goes a long way towards remedying the long-standing knowledge gap on the evolution of US installed capital over the late 1930s and early 1940s that has crippled analyses of productivity dynamics in the central part of the twentieth century. On the basis of these new data, I challenge recent positive assessments of productivity in the 1930s (Field 2011), and re-formulate the case for the central contribution of WW2 to the end of the Great Depression on the basis of a export-led supply boom. Yet, by the same token, the war-related investment effort of the period 1939-1943 contributed little to the revival of the US peace economy in the late 1940s.

# Monday 25th April 2016, 1.00pm - Mark Thomas (University of Virginia)
Anglo-American productivity differentials once again
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

This paper re-examines the current standard interpretation of relative productivity levels in British and American agriculture and manufacturing, using, inter alia, new data from the US Censuses of Manufactures and Agriculture in 1850 and the Feinstein-Thomas input-output table for 1851, as well as a new accounting framework that places emphasis on value-added rather than gross output as the appropriate basis for comparison.

# Monday 7th March 2016, 1.00pm - Professor B. Zorina Khan (Bowdoin College, USA, and National Bureau of Economic Research)
Knowledge, human capital and economic development: evidence from the British industrial revolution, 1750-1930
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Endogenous growth models raise fundamental questions about the nature of human creativity, and the sorts of resources, skills, and knowledge inputs that shift the frontier of technology and production possibilities.   Many argue that the nature of early British industrialization supports the thesis that economic advances depend on specialized scientific training or the acquisition of costly human capital.  This paper examines the contributions of different types of knowledge to British industrialization, by assessing the backgrounds, education and inventive activity of the major contributors to technological advances in Britain during the crucial period between 1750 and 1930.  The results indicate that scientists, engineers or technicians were not well-represented among the British great inventors until very late in the nineteenth century.   Instead, important discoveries and British industrial advances were achieved by individuals who exercised commonplace skills and entrepreneurial abilities to resolve perceived industrial problems.  For developing countries today, the implications are that costly investments in specialized human capital resources might be less important than incentives for creativity, flexibility, and the ability to make incremental adjustments that can transform existing technologies into inventions that are appropriate for prevailing domestic conditions.

# Monday 1st February 2016, 1.00pm - Dr Jean-Pascal Bassino (ENS Lyon), Dr Kyoji Fukao (IER, Hitotsubashi University) and Dr Tokihiko Settsu (Musashi University)
Revisiting Meiji Japan's economic miracle: the structural and regional dimensions of productivity growth (1874-1909)
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

The Japanese economy embarked in the last decades of the 19th century in a process of innovation leading to an acceleration of economic growth. As available national accounts estimates (Ohkawa and Shinohara 1979) provide only country level figures starting in 1885, the distinctive features of the early phase of Japanese economic development remain a matter of debate and conjecture. Relying on new sectoral GDP estimates for 1874, 1890, and 1909, for each of the 47 prefectures (Fukao et al. 2015), we conduct a quantitative analysis of structural change during Meiji Japan’s economic miracle, accounting also for its regional dimension.

# Monday 11th May 2015, 12.30pm - Eduard Alvarez (Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain) and Professor Jordi Marti Henneberg (University of Lleida, Spain)
Note: this seminar will start at 12.30pm. Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.15pm.
Railways and population: spatial interactions
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

This work presents case studies that quantify the different impacts that the railway network has had upon population geography since the mid-19th century. The use of HGIS techniques has been a key element in these studies, facilitating both data storage and the development of spatial models. It helped us to obtain a series of qualitative and quantitative indicators that help us to understand the spatial expansion of the railway network. The themes examined here include: the geopolitical role of railways as an instrument for controlling boundary’s stability; the interrelationship between access to railway transport and population growth; the correlation between access to the rail network and the growth of GDP; the influence of local railway networks in shaping metropolitan areas; and how urban growth has been conditioned by the location of railway stations.

# Monday 27th April 2015, 1.00pm - Dr Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia (with Julio Martínez-Galarraga) (Cambridge)
Land Access Inequality and Education in Pre-industrial Spain
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

This paper analyses information from the 464 districts existent in mid-19th century Spain and confirms that there is a negative relationship between land access inequality and literacy rates. This result does not disappear when a large set of potential confounding factors are included in the analysis. The use of the Reconquest as a quasi-natural experiment allows us to rule out further concerns about potential endogeneity. Likewise, by employing data on schooling enrolment rates and number of teachers, this paper explores the mechanisms behind the observed relationship in order to ascertain to which extent demand or supply factors are responsible for it. Lastly, the gender composition of the data, which enables distinguishing between female and male literacy levels, together with boys and girls schooling enrolment rates, is also examined.

# Monday 23rd February 2015, 1.00pm - Dr Miguel Morin (Cambridge)
The labor market consequences of electricity adoption: concrete evidence from the Great Depression
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

It remains a puzzle that job creation was so low during the Great Depression despite the quick recovery of productivity. This paper tests whether the adoption of electricity can explain both facts. It uses geography as an instrument for the change in the price of electricity and the concrete industry as a detailed case study. It finds that cheaper electricity caused a decrease in employment and in the labor share of income, as well as an increase in labor quantity productivity and electrical intensity. The findings lend support to the theory of technological unemployment during the Great Depression.

# Monday 19th January 2015, 1.00pm - Professor Carmen Sarasúa (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
Women’s work and structural change. Manufactures in 18th-century rural Spain
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Economic modernization is understood as the process by which societies moved from peasant to urban, and production and employment from agricultural to industrial. The main indicators of this transition are the share of GDP originated by the industrial and service sectors, and the share of population in non-agricultural, i.e., industrial and service, occupations.This paper does two things: first, it calculates women’s participation in 18th century inland Spain, thus contributing to knowledge on women’s work and on labor market segregation by gender in pre-industrial Europe. Secondly, it shows that taking into account women’s paid work transforms our vision of the structure of employment in preindustrial times, and thus the conventional vision of how economic and social modernization occurred.

# Monday 2nd June 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Natalia Mora-Sitja (Cambridge)
Female employment, occupational structure, and industrialisation in comparative perspective
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Facilitated by the creation of new datasets under the INCHOS project, and using consistent labour force definitions and the same PST classification scheme, this paper will explore and compare the evolution of female employment in several economies since the nineteenth century. By examining in a comparative perspective the evolution of female labour force participation rates over industrialisation, and the impact of sectoral changes on female employment, this session will offer an analysis of the relationship between women’s work characteristics and economic growth.

# Monday 19th May 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Alexis Litvine (Cambridge)
French occupational structure and labour productivity: what can new estimates tell us about the pace and nature of French industrialisation?
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

This paper will use new data on labour force to discuss the evolution of French apparent labour productivity since the end of the C18th. It shows that revisionist historians (Cameron, O’Brien and Keyder) were far too optimistic regarding C19th French industrial performance, but that subsequent counter-revisionists accounts failed to acknowledge the essential structural transformation that defined the French model of development before WW1. Thus, this new evidences partially confirm Crafts’ assessment of France’s modest but not inconsiderable economic performance in the nineteenth century, though they significantly revise downward French industrial productivity throughout the period.  The paper also analyses the productivity gap between the two countries suggesting that whereas French industry mostly followed British achievements (emulation), the key difference between the two countries was in the structure of agricultural production. The combination of labour-intensive agricultural production and low concentration of industrial waged labour (generalised by-employment) made possible by the unique distribution of landownership was the keystone of French economic development before the war.

# Monday 5th May 2014, 1.00pm - Professor M. Erdem Kabadayi (Istanbul Bilgi University)
Occupational Structures of Ottoman Cities in Mid-Nineteenth Century: Regional Differentiation or Cohesion? 
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

For this paper occupational titles of entire household heads in 14 cities will be coded into PSTI and compared to each other. The source material of this analysis is an empire wide survey conducted in 1845. This year is relevant to assess the effects of industrialization on the occupational structures of major Ottoman urban economies in a comparative context. It falls in the immediate aftermath of the game changing international free trade agreements of the Ottoman Empire first with Britain and then with other European countries. Moreover, it is also close to the benchmark UK 1851 census.

# Monday 3rd March 2014, 1.00pm - Professor Richard Smith (Cambridge)
Reconsidering recent estimates of the occupational structure of late fourteenth century England
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Two recent studies of occupational structure using poll taxes of 1379 and 1380-81 surprisingly conclude that agricultural employment in late fourteenth century England accounted for less than 60 per cent of the combined male and female working population. This paper considers systematic links between the degree of evasion, which was very great between the two taxes, and the occupational distributions and the heavily masculine tax-payer sex ratios. ‘Missing’ males and especially females were disproportionately from the young unmarried section of the population where female participation rates were likely to have been high in a demographic phase when male labour shortages prevailed. Estimates of female occupational structures are made, taking account of the occupations of those who evaded and making different assumptions regarding female participation rates.

# Monday 10th February 2014, 1.00pm - Dr Mohamed Saleh (University of Toulouse)
The Reluctant Transformation: Modernization, Religion, and Human Capital in Nineteenth Century Egypt
Venue: Seminar Room 5, Faculty of History

Over the nineteenth century, Egypt embarked on one of the world’s earliest state-led modernization programs in production, education, and the army. The paper examines the impact of this ambitious program on long-standing human capital differentials and occupational and educational segregation between Muslims, Christians, and Jews. It employ a new and unique data source, samples of the 1848 and 1868 Egyptian censuses digitized from the original manuscript forms, to examine this question. Overall, occupational and educational segregation was not attenuated by modernization, both because the traditional institutions in production and education were still the major routes for skill-acquisition, and because the new routes for mobility that modernization created were themselves segregated.

# Monday 4th March 2013, 12.45pm - Mr Xuesheng You, University of Cambridge
Sandwiches and fruit will be available from 12.30
Women's work by marital status in England and Wales in 1881: Evidence from the Census Enumerator's Books
Venue: Seminar Room, Main Geography Department Building, Downing Place

This paper utilizes a digitized version of the 100% sample of 1881 Census Enumerators’ Books (hereafter CEBs) to investigate women’s work by marital status in England and Wales. Prior to the availability of this 100% sample of 1881 CEBs in a machine-readable form, analysis of women’s work by marital status in the nineteenth century was either done by using tabulated figures in a couple of published censuses or only a small number of CEBs confined to a small area. With the digitized 100% sample of CEBs in England and Wales, this paper can offer a systematic analysis of women’s work by marital status with a wide geographical coverage. The nominal data in the CEBs allow me to investigate the employment of single women, married women and widows through various aspects of the household such as co-residence pattern and kin’s occupation etc. This allows me to identify some of the important factors behind women’s labour force participation.