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GIS transport infrastructure created by the project

GIS transport infrastructure created by the project

Some of datasets listed below are available to made other users. Those datasets all come with adequate documentation for those with the requisite technical knowledge. Sadly we do not have the resources to provide further assistance. However, we recognise that some scholars may wish to use these datasets, who either lack the requisite technical skills, or require further assistance for other reasons relating to the complexity of these resources. We are investigating mechanisms by which we might be able to fund such assistance and we would encourage registering expressions of interest in case such funding does become available (and registering an expression of interest might help us to secure finding in due course). In the meantime we may be able to help if you have funding available or if the query requires very little of our time. In the first instance, please contact Dr Max Satchell.


Section A. Road related datasets

1. Dynamic Turnpikes GIS of England and Wales 1667-1892

This GIS dataset is a dynamic map of the turnpike roads of England and Wales covering the entire period turnpike roads were in existence from the foundation of the earliest trust in 1667 to the dissolution of the last trust in 1892. A candidate GIS of some 22, 200 miles of turnpike road was digitized from georeferenced scans of John Cary's 1: 126, 720 New Map of England and Wales and Part of Scotland (1818-1828) using OS first edition (1840-1890) 1:10560 mapping as a map base. The candidate GIS was then corrected, upgraded and linked to information that enabled the extent of the roads belonging to each trust to be established and how that changed over time to be added to the attribute date of the GIS. This information derived from a variety of sources.

2. GIS of Beds and Stabling of England and Wales, 1686

This GIS dataset consists of point locations of counts of beds and stables listed in a national billeting survey of inns and alehouses in 1686.[1] The survey was conducted with considerable rigour, and with the exception of the major omission of London, was essentially comprehensive. The dataset was digitised from the original billeting register in the National Archives and then each of the 9,085 entries was assessed to see if it was possible to identify their location. Those that could be located were mapped as points using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc.

3. GIS of Petty Traders of England and Wales 1697-8

This GIS dataset consists of point locations of 2,386 petty traders occupying 391 named places as listed in a register of licences of 1697-8 in the National Archives.[2] The places listed in the register were mapped as points using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc. The GIS also gives of the details for each place in terms of how many of petty traders travelled on foot or by horse.

4. GIS of Delaune's List of London Carriers 1681 and 1690

This GIS dataset consists of point locations of the destinations of London services as listed in two works published by Thomas Delaune in 1681 and 1690.[3] The places listed by Delaune were mapped as points using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc. The GIS also includes details of the number of services per week to the destination and the mode/s of service: packhorse or wheeled (wagons, coaches).

5. GIS of Postal Stages of England and Wales 1675-1682

This GIS dataset consists of point locations of 365 postal stages in England and Wales as listed by John Ogilby in 1675 and Thomas Gardiner, sub-postmaster general, in 1682. The post-offices listed by Ogilby and Gardiner were mapped as points using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc. The route and place in the route sequence of each stage is also recorded in the attribute data.

6. GIS of Postal Routes 1675-1682

This GIS consists of straight-line linkages connecting postal stages to identify the routes of every postal main and by-route extant in England and Wales in 1675-1682. It derives from listings of 368 postal stages in England and Wales by John Ogilby in 1675 and Thomas Gardiner in 1682.

7. GIS of the Principal Highways of England and Wales, 1571

This GIS consists of straight-line linkages connecting stages listed in Richard Grafton's listing of the principal highways of England and Wales in 1571.[4] This listing of 41 highways was to form the standard corpus of routes for the many roadbooks that followed for the next 200 years.

8. GIS of Candidate Main Roads in England and Wales c.1680

This GIS dataset consists of a network of candidate mains roads in England and Wales c.1680. It was assembled as a series of linkages between nodes. First a set of key nodes were identified using places with substantial numbers of spare stables (≥ 14) in 1686; and/ or places with ≥ 4 petty traders in 1697-8, and/ or 7) destinations for London services as listed by Thomas Delaune in 1681-1690 and the appropriate point locations were extracted from these GIS datasets. Road and route alignments were then assessed using the beds and stabling data to assess the degree to which they connected nodes. On the basis of this assessment all the roads included in our GIS of the principal roads listed in Ogilby's Britannia were included. The majority of the linkages which were still missing were extracted from the turnpikes GIS, but only if they were a pre-existing road that had been adopted by a trust rather than a road that had been built de novo. Nodes that were still unconnected were joined using road alignments identified from earlier mapping and approximated by digitisation from the OS 1:10560 1st edition mapping.

9. GIS of Coach Stops of London Routes from Bates' Coaching Directory of 1836

This GIS dataset consists of point data of 417 coach stops for coaching services from London digitised from Bates' Coaching Directory of 1836.[5] The coach stops were mapped as points using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc. The attribute data includes linkage to an MS Access database which includes the name and number of the coach, time and day of travel, the route, and the number of passengers who could be accommodated.

10. GIS of Coach Routes from London as Listed in Bates' Coaching Directory of 1836

This GIS dataset consists of 309 coach routes from London as listed in Bates' Coaching Directory of 1836.

11. GIS of 1st Class Roads of England and Wales c. 1911

This GIS datasets consists of 13,186 polylines and represents 23,857.9 miles of roads classified as first class as mapped by the Ordnance Survey 1: 63, 360 3rd edition New Series. This map series was based on a field revision of 1901-1912. In this map series classification of a road as first class was restricted to "main roads, usually between towns, with a minimum of 14 feet of metalling". The classification should be regarded as accurate as the mapping was based on close liaison between the surveyors of the Ordnance Survey and local highway authorities.[6]

12. GIS of Road Carrying and Coaching Services Operating out of London

A full listing has been prepared for all public transport services to and from London using a sequence of London Trade Directories (1637, 1681, 1690, 1705, 1715, 1727, 1738, 1740, 1749, 1760, 1770, 1779, 1790, 1791, 1800, and 1836). In all cases the places which were mentioned as "stops" were assigned a standardised name, and were plotted using a standard hierarchy of enduring features: market-place, parish church, high street, inn, public-house etc in association with the main roads of 1680. A series of dates were selected for more detailed analysis of "service routes" (1681, 1690, 1705, 1715, 1727, 1738, 1760, 1779, 1791, and 1836).

13. GIS Linked Turnpike Revenues and Other Trust Characteristics

Each section of our turnpike road GIS has attribute data for the trust to which it pertained, linked with toll revenue data on individual turnpike trusts which we hold for 1820, 1834, 1836, and 1838. The toll revenue data were obtained from a series of parliamentary reports. As toll revenue was related to traffic volume the GIS depicts road traffic flows prior to the railway age. In addition, we have also linked debt, interest payments, numbers of gates, descriptions of road conditions, trust observations on the effects of railways and the abolition of statute labour.

14. Coaching and Carrying Services c.1830 from Pigot's Directories.

This dataset consists of coach and road carrier services between many towns c.1830. The sources of Pigot's trade directories, generally organized by county. The data include numbers of weekly services between individual towns, the name of the carrier or coach, and some information on the type of service. This data set is similar to the London directories in content, but it contains services between all towns, not just London. This data has been digitized but has not yet been linked to GIS.


Section B. Inland Waterways Related Datasets

15. Inland Waterways GIS 1600-1948

This is a dynamic GIS dataset of the navigable waterways and canals of England and Wales over the period 1600-1948.Its attributes includes the name of the waterways, its type (natural/ improved river; tidal or freshwater; canal (broad or narrow); and the range of dates for which it is known to be navigable/ in commercial use. It is linked to an access database which allows the extraction of a GIS waterways "time slice" for any given year from 1600 to 1948. This enables the network to be in any given year in this period to be mapped.

16. Inland Waterways GIS for Network Analysis, 1680

This is an upgraded output from the dynamic GIS of the navigable waterways of England and Wales 1600-1948 (see 15. above created by the Cambridge Group). This new version of differs from its predecessor has been rigorously checked and carefully edited to make it suitable for network analysis in ArcMap and properly representative of the extent of navigable waterways in England and Wales in 1680.

17. Inland Waterways GIS for Network Analysis, 1830

This is an upgraded output from the dynamic GIS of the navigable waterways of England and Wales 1600-1948 (see 15. above created by the Cambridge Group). This new version of differs from its predecessor has been rigorously checked and carefully edited to make it suitable for network analysis in ArcMap and properly representative of the extent of navigable waterways in England and Wales in 1830.

18. Inland Waterways GIS for Network Analysis, 1911

This is an upgraded output from the dynamic GIS of the navigable waterways of England and Wales 1600-1948 (see 15. above created by the Cambridge Group). This new version of differs from its predecessor has been rigorously checked and carefully edited to make it suitable for network analysis in ArcMap and properly representative of the extent of navigable waterways in England and Wales in 1911

19. 1820 England and Wales Navigable Waterways

ArcGIS shapefile of navigable waterways for England and Wales in 1820. This is a subset of dataset 15 for the year 1820 and is freely available to other researchers.

20. 1851 England and Wales Navigable Waterways

ArcGIS shapefile of navigable waterways for England and Wales in 1851. This is a subset of dataset 15 for the year 1851 and is freely available to other researchers.

21. 1861 England and Wales Navigable Waterways

ArcGIS shapefile of navigable waterways for England and Wales in 1861. This is a subset of dataset 15 for the year 1861 and is freely available to other researchers.

22. 1881 England and Wales Navigable Waterways

ArcGIS shapefile of navigable waterways for England and Wales in 1881. This is a subset of dataset 15 for the year 1881 and is freely available to other researchers.

23. Canal Returns of 1838

Database of the canal returns of 1838 digitised from the "Returns of all inland navigation", BPP 1872 XIII (II). In due course we plan to link this dataset to our waterways GIS.

Section C. Coastal Trade and Ports Related Datasets

24. Ports GIS

This point data GIS was initially created a list of ports for the period 1780-1914 (Langton & Morris, Atlas of Industrialising Britain, 2002). It was then upgraded with information from other primary and secondary sources, resulting in a much fuller list of ports covering a longer period and a more complete and precise geography.

25. Coastal Routes GIS

GIS of coastal routes based on bathymetrical information indicating submerged hazards and safe channels on the east and west coasts of England and Wales. Coastal routes are split into two main types: a national cabotage contour line, and from this, entry lines connecting with the ports GIS. Cabotage lines currently follow a 25-meter iso-depth curve that follows the British coastline, assuming ships were able to navigate easily without colliding with seabed. Entry lines are designed as connections between ports and the nearest cabotage line, following the route with less bathymetrical barriers. The bathymetry data was obtained from 30" gridded data raster available from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet): http://www.emodnet.eu/bathymetry.

26. Coastal Distances Database

In absence of comprehensive historic information for English and Welsh coastal shipping lanes, the Coastal Voyage Routes GIS provides information for the hypothetical routing of coastal shipping. Based on this, voyage distances between any of our defined ports are calculated. The Coastal Distance GIS is a grid of distances calculated linking any port-pair (ports defined in the GIS Ports Database) when linked with the Coastal Voyage Routes Database and provides a given route and thus travelled distance. Notional voyage times and costs can be calculated by adding sailing speeds and unitary costs in different periods.

27. Port Tonnages and Flows Database

Our database for coastal shipping flows and registry tonnages 1670-1911 is derived in part from Gordon Jackson's data concerning the tonnage of coastal trade and overseas trade in and out of each port and the tonnages registered at each of the custom ports of England, Wales and Scotland for the years 1791, 1841, and 1900.[7] We have added further tonnage data for 1709, 1751 and 1911 from additional historical sources from the British Library (BL Add Ms 11555 & 11556 'Tonnage of Shipping', 1709-1781), and a parliamentary report.[8]Coastal shipping tonnages were generally listed by numbers registered at ports, and secondly, numbers entering and leaving ports.

28. Coast Port Books (TNA E122) Database

This database provides 2,500 records of individual coastal voyages circa 1650-1670 and is based on customs bonds posted and redeemed in English and Welsh ports. Coast port books provide the date of departure and approximate date of arrival of named vessels, allowing for a database of timed voyages by commercial coasting vessels between ports. In many cases, dates are provided for port entry and subsequent departure of named vessels, so providing numerous in-port times that can be used to assess the efficiency of loading and other port operations.

29. Board of Trade Crew Lists 1830-45 (TNA BT98)

This dataset derives from within the Board of Trade records (BT98). Between c.1830 and c.1845, masters of coastal vessels were required to complete forms that recorded details of recent voyages. This detail provides a dataset of 7,500 coastal journeys dating between 75 customs and member ports in England and Wales. Departure dates have been arranged as ongoing coastal voyages, and so additionally provide in-port times along routes with intermediate stops.

Section D. Railway Related Datasets.

30. Railway GIS, 1911 for Network Analysis

This GIS dataset was built upon the earlier digitization (from Michael Cobb's definitive historical atlas) of a time-dynamic GIS of British railways undertaken by a team led by Professor Jordi Marti Henneberg at the University of Lleida in a collaboration with ourselves. The new dataset contains several major improvements to serve two purposes: i) linkage of the GIS dataset to data from the 1911 railway returns; ii) make the GIS dataset suitable for the network analysis of the transportation of coal.

31. 1851 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Lines

ArcGIS shapefile of railway lines open to public carriage of passengers and/or freight for England, Wales and Scotland in 1851. This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1851 and is available to other researchers.

32. 1861 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Lines

ArcGIS shapefile of railway lines open to public carriage of passengers and/or freight for England, Wales and Scotland in 1861.
This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1861 and is available to other researchers.

33. 1881 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Lines

ArcGIS shapefile of railway lines open to public carriage of passengers and/or freight for England, Wales and Scotland in 1881.
This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1871 and is available to other researchers.

34. 1851 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Stations

ArcGIS shapefile of railway stations for England, Wales and Scotland in 1851. This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1851 and is available to other researchers.

35. 1861 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Stations

ArcGIS shapefile of railway stations for England, Wales and Scotland in 1861. This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1861 and is available to other researchers.

36. 1881 England, Wales and Scotland Rail Stations

ArcGIS shapefile of railway stations for England, Wales and Scotland in 1881. This dataset is a subset of dataset 28 for the year 1881 and is available to other researchers.

37. London Underground GIS Database, 1911 and 1921

This GIS dataset contains the digitization of underground lines and underground stations representing the whole London underground system at these two dates. The underground lines and stations derive from Transport for London derived data, Cobb's railway atlas and other sources. The date attributes of the shapefiles derive from Rose's London Underground: A diagramatic history (2007). This dataset also contains a set of simulated/virtual footpaths that link together two or more underground lines going through the same station together to represent a realistic connection for underground travellers.

38. Railway Returns 1911

This dataset contains data pertaining to all the railway companies operating in England and Wales in 1911. For each railway company, this dataset contains information on: i) total length of double tracks; ii) total length or single tracks; iii) total length of railway lines in equivalence of single track; iv) the number of passengers conveyed, distinguished by class; v) the number of season ticket holders; vi) tonnage of minerals and goods conveyed; vii) the number of miles travelled by passenger trains and goods trains; viii) gross receipt from passengers, distinguished by class; ix) gross receipts from goods train, distinguished by merchandise, livestock and minerals.


Section E. Multi-Modal Transport Models

39. Multi-Modal Transport Model c.1680

With the aim to employ the various historical transport networks for analytical purposes, we developed a specific code to integrate all the different means of transport creating a multimodal model for each time slice. The python script combines roads, waterways, coastal routes and railway lines to allow the connection between each pair of origins and destinations. In 1680, the model integrates Ogilby roads, ferries navigable rivers and coastal connections. Beyond the actual network infrastructure, the model adds short straight-line connections between towns and ports to the nearest network. It allows their connectivity and the possibility of routing through the model. Besides, the model considers transhipment costs in the ports, as well as the intersection points between different means of transport. Finally, speed and cost parameters are used to assign to each infrastructure the appropriate cost value, allowing the implementation of network analysis tools. Short-path and least-cost-path analysis are performed to extract OD matrices for each time slice and means of transport.

40. Multi-Modal Transport Model c.1830

With the aim of employing the various historical transport networks for analytical purposes, we developed a specific code to integrate all the different means of transport creating a multimodal model for each time slice. The python script combines roads, waterways, coastal routes and railway lines to allow the connection between each pair of origins and destinations. In 1830, the model contains turnpike roads, secondary roads, navigable rivers, canals and coastal connections. Beyond the actual network infrastructure, the model adds short straight-line connections between towns and ports to the nearest network. It allows their connectivity and the possibility of routing through the model. Besides, the model considers transhipment costs in the ports, as well as the intersection points between different means of transport. Finally, speed and cost parameters are used to assign to each infrastructure the appropriate cost value, allowing the implementation of network analysis tools. Short-path and least-cost-path analysis are performed to extract OD matrices for each time slice and means of transport.

41. Multi-Modal Transport Model 1911

With the aim of employing the abovementioned historical transport networks for analytical purposes, we developed a specific code to integrate all the different means of transport creating a multimodal model for each time slice. The python script combines roads, waterways, coastal routes and railway lines to allow the connection between each pair of origins and destinations. In 1911, railways and the London underground are added, as well as first class roads extracted from contemporary road maps. Beyond the actual network infrastructure, the model adds short straight-line connections between towns and ports to the nearest network. It allows their connectivity and the possibility of routing through the model. Besides, the model considers transhipment costs in the ports, as well as the intersection points between different means of transport. Finally, speed and cost parameters are used to assign to each infrastructure the appropriate cost value, allowing the implementation of network analysis tools. Short-path and least-cost-path analysis are performed to extract OD matrices for each time slice and means of transport.


[1] TNA, WO 30/48

[2] TNA, AO 3/370

[3] T. Delaune, The Present State of London (1681); T. Delaune, Angliae Metropolis (1690)

[4] R. Grafton, A Little Treatise Containing Many Proper Tables and Rules, etc (1571)

[5] A. Bates, Directory of Stage Coach Services, 1836 (1969)

[6] BPP Ordnance Survey Annual Report 1900-01; Y. Hodson, 'Coloured Roads on Ordnance Survey First Edition 1 : 2500. Plans and One-Inch Maps 1897–1935', Cartographic Journal, 42 (2005), 85-110

[7] G. Jackson, 'Sea Trade' in Electronic Atlas of Industrialising Britain, ed. J. Langton and R.J. Morris http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/aib/contents.html accessed 29 September 2013

[9] P.P. XCVIII (1852-3) A return of the number and tonnage of sailing vessels registered at each of the ports of Great Britain...31st day December 1851: - also a similar return of steam vessels and the tonnage.