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Examples of other scholars using our datasets

Examples of other scholars using our datasets

The datasets being produced by the Occupational Structure of Britain c.1379-1911 research program are of use for a multitude of research purposes beyond those for which we originally created them. Our datasets are already in use by a remarkably diverse set of scholars and research teams around the world. Existing users come not just from economic history but also include: archaeologists, business historians, economists, historical geographers, medical historians, social historians, sociologists, policy makers, political scientists, and even psychologists.

Information on third party publications arising from the use of our datasets, data access and collaborative possibilities are given elsewhere on this website. For examples of current uses of the datasets see below:

  1. Professor Steve Broadberry (Warwick) has used the 1813-20 and 1831 datasets to help reconstruct the occupational structure of England in 1377 and 1522, using the poll tax returns and muster rolls. Our data heve been used to cross-check the method of allocating general labourers across sectors, and also provide useful information for dealing with parishes where he has incomplete information. This is part of a project with Professor Jan Luiten van Zanden (Utrecht) 'Reconstructing the National Income of Britain and Holland, c.1270/1500 to 1850', funded by the Leverhulme Trust, Reference Number F/00215AR, for £333,266.
  2. Dr Tim Leuning (LSE) and Dr Patrick Wallis (LSE) have used the PST definition and look-up tables for their project 'Apprenticeship and Human Capital in early modern England.' This includes work funded by the British Academy (Grant SG-45038) on 'Why did apprenticeships fail?' Their project examines the operation of apprenticeship training in early modern England, particularly in London, the country's largest centre of training. They used the PST coding and lookup tables we supplied extensively, to standardize and categorize the occupations of apprentices and their parents contained in several large datasets. Without the PST coding, their work would have been substantially harder to carry out. They also used the PST coding analytically as a framework to examine evidence for possible spillovers and synergies between father's and son's occupations. This formed an important aspect of their study of the role of network effects in structuring migration and occupational mobility in early modern England.
  3. Professor Jane Humphries (Oxford) has used the 1813-20 data to assess the representativeness of the collection of autobiographies underlying her monograph, Childhood and child labour in the British Industrial Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  4. Dr John Broad (Cambridge) is using the parish code book to provide unique identities for 1,270 parishes in the diocese of Lincoln for his edition of the Wake Visitation returns c.1710 to be published by the British Academy. This is a vital resource providing the most accurate mapping of ancient parishes at that date. Because the code book is also integrated with GIS mapping it will enable Broad to undertake sophisticated mapping of a variety of features from population, religious affiliation, church attendance, schooling and elite presence at a local and regional level. The parish database is also central to the future mapping of other data Broad is developing, including parish level housing and welfare measures, and a further project to explore the Land Tax c.1798 nationally for evidence about landholding patterns, farm size, and social structure.
  5. Mr Eli Schachar (Yale) has made use of our principal towns data for 1841, 1851 and 1871 to re-examine the impact of railways on the location of industries during the nineteenth centuries.
  6. Professor Jordi Marti Henneberg (Lleida) and Dr Ian Gregory (Lancaster) are using the quasi-parish population data to examine the impact of railways on population geography.
  7. Prof Andrew Reynolds (UCL) and colleagues in the University of Nottingham and University of Winchester completed a three year Leverhulme-funded project 'Landscape of Governance: Assembly sites in England 5th to 11th centuries' (2009–12) (Leverhulme Trust, Reference Number F/07 134/CS, amount £ 259,545). Amongst their outputs is a digital mapping of the hundred boundaries as reconstructed from the Domesday survey of 1086. Digitisation of the Domesday hundreds was enabled by the Cambridge Group who provided GIS-enabled data of the nineteenth-century hundredal geography. A retrogressive approach, using these maps in combination with the Alecto Domesday mapping, along with reconstructions by Olaf Anderson, and the Phillimore Domesday Book series, and parish boundaries recorded on 1851 one-inch Ordnance Survey maps, has allowed for the digital reconstruction of the mid-eleventh century hundredal pattern. It will be made publically accessible via the Archaeology Data Service in 2015. The project has generated several articles in scholarly journals, and two books are in the final stages of preparation.

  8. Dr. Francesca Carnevali (Birmingham) and Dr. Lucy Newton (Reading) have a project 'Made in Britain': The manufacturing and marketing of household goods in Britain, 1850-1914'. Our census data will allow them to assess the number of people employed in the manufacturing of household goods and to identify geographical clusters of manufacturers at different points in time. They are currently using data from our project on piano manufacuturers for a pilot study.
  9. Professor Kevin Schürer and Dr Eddie Higgs have a large ESRC funded project, intended to make all the Census Enumerators Returns 1851-1911 fully machine-readable and available to the scholarly community. For details see: http://www.essex.ac.uk/history/research/icem/ . Our datasets will be used to check local population totals and the coding of the nominal occupational data. This will be very important in ensuring the data quality is of a high standard.
  10. A modified version of the PST system, PST International (PSTI) is being used to classify occupational dasta by members of the INCHOS project working on the following countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States,
  11. Prof. Dr. Jan Lucassen (IISH Amsterdam) studies comparatively the history of work and labour relations of brick makers in Western Europe (including England), Eastern Europe (together with Dr. Gijs Kessler, IISH Moscow)and India. As brick making in all these cases is a seasonal occupation - though easily covering between one half and three quarters of a year - before the end of the nineteenth century it involved massive seasonal migrations as well. The question is then, if and where seasonal brick makers are registered in occupational censuses. Or, in other words, whether industrial censuses, showing locations of production (brick fields / kilns) yield different geographical patterns from occupational censuses. The occupations project data show that in the English case, they actually do, a phenomenon which may be partially explained by seasonal migration patterns.
  12. Sarah Price (University of Glasgow) wrote a masters' thesis entitled 'The Pattern of the Picts', deploying GIS to examine the landscape context of early medieval sculpture in Scotland. Our dataset of county boundaries, though derived from the 1851 census, provides useful information about the human and social configuration of the landscape at earlier dates.
  13. Dr Alex Klein (Kent) and Dr Tim Leunig (LSE) have been using the nineteenth century population data generated by the project to investigate the growth of cities in England in the nineteenth century. Economists and economic geographers have investigated 'Gibrat's Law', that is, the growth rate of a city is independent of its initial size. This rule is usually found to hold. But modern city growth is often politically determined - it is governments, at least at local level - not the market, who decide whether a city grows or not. Nineteenth century Britain is interesting to economists as an example of market led development. It is also interesting to economic historians because it is the world's first transition from a rural to an urban nation. This project could not have gone ahead without the data that were freely and generously supplied by Shaw-Taylor and Wrigley.
  14. Dr Chiaki Yamamoto (Osaka University) is using our PST-definitions and PST-lookup tables to codify Wolverhampton directories for a forthcoming book with collected papers: English Urban Renaissance: reconstruction of urban space in the eighteenth century (in Japanese).
  15. Dr. Richard L. Zijdeman (Utrecht University / Stirling University) is affiliated with Towards Open Societies (an ERC advanced Investigators grant project) and investigates female labour force participation and occupational status attainment among women in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He is using our nineteenth century population data to study the impact of regional characteristics, such as urbanization measured by the size of the population, on individual level outcomes regarding labour force participation and occupational status attainment.
  16. Prof Amy Livingstone (History Department, Wittenberg University, USA) used our ancient counties boundary data to create a map tracking the movement of peasant women in Eastern England in the late Middle Ages for a collection of essays Writing Medieval Women's Lives (Palgrave MacMillian, 2012) exploring the new strategies that medieval scholars are employing to recover the life experiences of medieval women. One of the audiences intended for this volume are general readers and undergraduates. Many of the women examined in the volume come from places that such audiences may not know. In an attempt to provide clarity and context for these essays, maps were developed to reflect women's experience.
  17. Dr Mark Koyama, Department of Economics and Related Studies, University of York is planning to use our ancient county boundary dataset to map out the distribution of associations for the prosecution of felons in early nineteenth century England. Hopefully it will be possible to identity the location and geographical characteristics of the most active associations.
  18. Dr. Joseph Ferrie (Northwestern University) and Dr. Jason Long (Wheaton College) will use the 1851 parish shapefiles and railway data in a project for which they have linked British out-migrants to the U.S. from their 1851 British Census entries to their 1880 U.S. Census entries. They will use GIS to get a better sense of how proximity to local transportation networks influenced the selectivity of out-migration.
  19. Professor David Mitch (University of Maryland, Baltimore County) is using the machine readable 1851 registration district occupational data for England and Wales to examine the mutual interaction between occupational structure and educational activity as indicated by such measures as school enrolment rates and marriage register signature rates. A central aim of the project is to compare and contrast findings for England and Wales with recent findings for Prussia by Becker, Hornung, and Woessmann. The analysis for 1851 will be used as a benchmark for examining how the relationship between occupational structure and educational activity changed during the latter half of the nineteenth century and more tentatively how that relationship may have varied prior to 1851.
  20. Dr David Thorpe, Honorary Senior Research Fellow, UCL, is using our transcript of the 1851 Census occupation data for towns in his study of domestic servants. The study entitled, 'Who kept Domestic servants 1851-1921', is mainly based on data from the Census Enumerators books.
  21. Sarah Heeks (University of Exeter) is undertaking a masters' thesis on the occupations of patients in the Devon County Lunatic Asylum in 1881 and 1901, with specific reference to those in domestic service. She is using our county level occupational datasets for 1881 and 1911 as comparison data at county level.
  22. Dr Simon Dixon (Oxford), Professor Lawrence Brockliss (Oxford) and Professor Michael Moss (Glasgow) are working on a pilot project funded by Oxford University's John Fell Fund. They are using our 1851 census date to assess the representativeness of a sample of professionals drawn from the 1851 Census Enumerators' books for Winchester, Alnwick and Morpeth.
  23. Professor John Stobart (Manchester) used our 1813-20 data to assess the numbers and geographical distribution of grocers, tea dealers and tobacconists in the early nineteenth century, in his Sugar and spice: grocers and groceries in provincial England, 1650-1830 (Oxford University Press, 2012).
  24. Professor Marianna Belloc (Sapienza - University of Rome) and Professor Mauro Rota (Sapienza - University of Rome) are involved in a project that investigates the long run effects of the skilled labour migration on the occupational structure of the English towns. The historical episode considered in this research is the exodus of the Huguenots (merchants, money lenders or skilled workers) from France to England that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685). This project will use Ogilby's principal roads and waterways data to track the routes of the immigrants. Moreover, it will employ data on the local population in 1670 and 1801 to assess the relative weight of migrants' flows in each town.
  25. Mingjie Xu (History Faculty, University of Cambridge) in his master's thesis entitled 'The Revolt in Rural Cambridgeshire in 1381' utilizes GIS to create two maps of the 1381 revolt in rural Cambridgeshire. Our database of county and parish boundaries, though derived from the 1851 census, provides a primitive model for the maps where further information can be added, such as number of incidents taking place in different parishes and number of rebels coming from the parishes.
  26. Professor John Styles (Hertfordshire) is using our GIS boundary data for his European Research Council Advanced Grant project: 'Spinning in the Era of the Spinning Wheel, 1400-1800'. The purpose of the project is to provide a comprehensive history of hand spinning in England between 1400 and 1800. The single most important source of evidence on individual hand spinners is the records of prosecutions of worsted spinners for false and short reeling, undertaken in 17 English counties in the North of England, the East Midlands and East Anglia during the last three decades of the eighteenth century. Records survive for approximately 6,000 prosecutions, providing information about residence, sex, marital status, male occupations, etc. It is this information that the Cambridge Group's GIS boundary data will enable him to map.
  27. Dr Jacob Weisdorf and Nina Boberg-Fazlic (Dept of Economics, University of Copenhagen) are using our occupational data from the Fleet marriage registers c.1710 and c.1750 and from baptism registers 1813-20 and from the 1881 census as part of a project on the role of human capital formation during the Industrial Revolution.
  28. David Zylberberg (York University, Toronto) has completed a doctoral dissertation (supervised by Professor Jeanette Neeson) on household fuel consumption in Hampshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire between 1760 and 1830. He used our hundredal population estimates for Hampshire in the eighteenth century to determine whether population growth was a causal factor in the price of and amount of fuel consumed in the county.
  29. Dr Alexis Litvine (University of Cambridge) used our census data in his PhD dissertation (supervised by Professor Martin Daunton) to give a general picture of the evolution of the occupational distribution of the population in England and Wales between 1851 and 1911 and compare it to similar data for Belgium, France and Italy. His research focuses on a comparative transnational (Belgium, Britain, France, and Italy) cultural model of European industrialisation from 1850 to the First World War. He is looking at the idea of economic modernisation from the vantage point of social and cultural transformations, especially the evolution of the apprehension of space and time.
  30. Dr Jacob Weisdorf and PhD student Marc Klemp (Dept of Economics, University of Copenhagen) are using our female servants wages data for a project which studies the relationship between female wages and their marriage and birth decisions in England during the first Industrial Revolution.
  31. Dr Toke S. Aidt (University of Cambridge) and Dr Raphael Franck (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) have used the shape files with maps of the ancient counties and the hundreds and wapentakes in England and Wales in 1831 to map the incidence of the Swing Riots. This is part of a research project that inquires into the potential link between social unrest and riots and parliamentary reform.
  32. Dr Alex Trew (Economics, St Andrews) is using our occupational data for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He is working on a theoretical study of the relationship between economic geography and industrial takeoff, including the spatial development of infrastructure and its interaction with financial development.
  33. James Dowey (Economic History, LSE) is writing a PhD thesis on the spatial distribution of technological innovation and its co-factors, particularly scientific culture, in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. He is using the Cambridge Group's datasets on occupations by registration district from the 1851 census to control for industry sector location.
  34. Dr. Toke Aidt (Economics, Cambridge) and Dr. Gabriel Leon (Economics, Cambridge) are using the GIS maps of the ancient counties and parishes in England and Wales to map how the Swing Riots spread geographically over time. This is related to a project that aims to test the validity of theories of democratic change recently proposed by economists and political scientists.
  35. Dr Jennifer Aston (now University of Oxford), in her PhD thesis on 'Female Business Owners in England, 1849-1901', supervised by Dr Francesca Carnevali at the University of Birmingham, used our 1851-71 principal towns data to assess whether the types of business owned by women and registered in trade directories of Birmingham and Leeds were representative of the wider occupations of the town.
  36. Dr Catriona Macleod (University of Glasgow) used the 1851/1861 Scottish towns data to establish female employment patterns in the Glasgow area in her 2015 PhD thesis (supervised by Dr Alexandra Shephard) on women's economic roles in Glasgow in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Our dataset provides an end-point and source for comparison with earlier sources.
  37. Professor Peter Jensen (Economics, University of Southern Denmark) is using the GIS shapefiles of ancient counties of England and Wales 1831 and 1851 for a project looking at the Swing Riots and for examining the effects of various agricultural innovations on population growth.
  38. James Solomon-Rounce (Senior Research Analyst, Cheshire East Council) is using our principal towns data as part of a study analysing the shifting employment patterns in Cheshire. The project will involve a number of themed census case studies, including a State of the Borough report which will use the data to assess the rise and decline of local industries. In particular, the study will look at the rise of employment associated with the railway industry within Crewe and the relative decline of the silk industry in Macclesfield. Additionally, the project will explore the shift from rural to urban employment within a traditional rural county.
  39. Mark Wilson (Senior Project Officer, Strategic Environmental Delivery Group, Hampshire County Council) is using our hundreds and wapentakes GIS to help inform a spatial prediction model for the potential location of ancient trees in Hampshire.The results may help in finding and recording ancient trees in the County.
  40. Peter Watson (University of Oxford) is using our hundreds and wapentakes GIS to create maps for his doctoral thesis which will be an edition of the Okeover Cartulary, which is a collection of deeds of the Okeover family c.1100-1325. Detailed maps will be essential in explaining the complex set of relationships between the Okeovers and those from whom they held their lands. The administrative boundaries will add a further level of understanding because of the role that local courts may have played in land transactions. The mapping will be incorporated in a thesis entitled "The Okeover Cartulary" which is being supervised by Professor Richard Sharpe.
  41. Barry Pearce (Land Economy, Cambridge, retired) will be using the 1686 spare beds and stabling dataset as part of his research on the history of English towns from the early medieval to the early modern period.
  42. James Dowey (Economic History, LSE) is writing a doctoral thesis on the spatial distribution of technological innovation and its co-factors, particularly scientific culture, in Britain during the Industrial Revolution. He is using using our hundreds and wapentakes GIS to create a panel dataset on scientific inputs and technological innovation in the 18th century. His thesis is entitled 'Pride and Prejudice on the Eve of Modern Economic Growth: Britain's Solution to the Problem of Trust' and his supervisor is Dr Max Schulze.
  43. Dr Simon T Abernethy (University of Cambridge) used the 1881 and 1911 census population data to work out the distribution of Greater London's population by social class in order to study the relationship between social class and public transport within London's boroughs, in his PhD thesis, 'Class and commuting in Greater London, 1881 - 1940'.
  44. Professor Peter Kirby (Glasgow Caledonian University) is analysing Scottish census data digitised by the Cambridge Group. The project examines county-level enumeration of child occupations and the relationship between child labour and relative economic development in the mid-nineteenth century. Statistics for the thirty-two census counties of Scotland in 1851 will be produced.
  45. Dr Ian Rowlands and Dr Simon Dixon (both Leicester) are using the PST lookup table to clean up the occupations of Jewish migrants as recorded in the Poor Jews' Temporary Shelter Database (1896-1914). This is in preparation for an AHRC-funded workshop on Digital Humanities for doctoral students from Leicester and Nottingham (February 2014) where they plan to cover data preparation and cleaning using MS Access and then use a variety of tools for visualising and exploring patterns in the data.
  46. Cristóbal Montt Volosky (Department of Sociology, Utrecht University), who is undertaking a master's thesis entitled 'The Determinants of Career Success of Men born during Industrialization in Britain: 1780-1880', will use our dataset on parish and registration district population to complement the data of Pooley (1996) "Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories", to assess how urbanization (among other individual and contextual characteristics of the period) may have influence the chances of career success of men during industrialization in Britain, and how the influence of this determinants changed over time.
  47. Vellore Arthi (University of Oxford) is using the 19th century occupations and population data in a project that examines the effect of changing cotton quality on child health in textile regions.
  48. Prof Alessandro Nuvolari and Dr Ugo Gragnolati (Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy) plan to use the 1841 and 1851 occupations datasets in a project that considers the geography of innovation in Britain during the period 1800-1850. They use patents as a proxy of inventive activities and would like to examine the connection between patterns of geographical distribution of patents and patterns of geographical distribution of occupations in various sectors. More specifically, the empirical framework they intend to use is the one presented in Bottazzi, G. and Gragnolati, U.M, 'Cities and clusters: economy-wide and sector-specific effects in corporate location', Regional Studies, 2014, forthcoming-
  49. Dr. Arne Aelvoet (Leuven) is affiliated with New approaches to the social dynamics of long-term fertility change (a concerted research action) and investigates the impact of the declining West-Flemish linen industry (mid-19th century) on fertility patterns. He is using our PST-lookup tables and translation from HISCO to PST to codify occupational titles found in West-Flemish parish and civil registers, the population census of 1814 and cadastral information publicized by Philippe Chrétien Popp.
  50. Professor James Hanley (McGill University) is using the GIS shapefile of registration subdistricts of England and Wales 1851 for a project looking at John Snow's work in South London in 1854.
  51. Mark Westcott (Economics, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich) is using the GIS shapefile of 1881 railway lines and stations for a project on the US Army in England during World War II. In particular, he wants to understand where troops were stationed/billeted in the years leading up to the D-Day landings. Mark plans to use railway data to examine if proximity to transport infrastructure played any role in deciding where troops would be accommodated.
  52. Adriane Fresh (Stanford University) is using our parish population data and registration and sub-registration district boundary shapefiles. She is working on a dissertation project that examines both the causes and consequences of elite concentration -- particularly dynastic concentration -- of MPs within parliamentary constituencies through British history. The population data is essential for scaling many of the outcomes as a % of the relevant population that she is interested in examining -- various measures of economic welfare and development -- as well as spatially transforming data measured at different levels of geographic aggregation -- specifically the transformation between various administrative boundaries and parliamentary constituency boundaries which do not coincide.
  53. Philip Mellor (Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow) is undertaking doctoral research to identify the collective area of non-agricultural land in Scotland that could be used for bioenergy provision. This will include an investigation of the vacant and derelict land that is surveyed annually. Philip plans to use the GIS shapefiles of 1851 railway lines and stations to cross-check locations that have been identified in the vacant and derelict land survey (2013) as 'disused' railway. The data may later be used to highlight disused portions of rail property that are not included in the survey, and in the assessment of the feasibility of using this land for bioenergy provision.
  54. Adam Crymble (University of Hertfordshire) is using the GIS shapefile of 1831 hundred boundaries in England and Wales for a project on mapping the distribution of names.
  55. Lorna Stoddart (University of Edinburgh) is undertaking a doctoral thesis, supervised by Professor Charles Withers, on the archived remains of John Hutton Balfour, Regius Keeper of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic Gardens 1845-1879. She is researching his botanical excursions across Scotland and North England with pupils during the mid to late nineteenth century. Lorna plans to assess the degree to which the developing railway network governed the locations of the excursions. She is using our shapefiles of rail lines and stations for England, Scotland and Wales.
  56. Rosalind Crone (Open University) is using the ArcGIS shapefile of 1851 England and Wales census parishes, townships and places in order to map location data relating to the lives of convicted criminals in Suffolk between 1840 and 1870. The project will highlight the extent of geographical mobility experienced by the labouring poor at different points in their lives.
  57. Jerry Luke (History Faculty, University of Cambridge) using the Ogilby road map data in his 2015 masters thesis on 'Welsh apprentices in London c.1600-1660', to investigate whether the men who migrated from the Principality to apprenticeship positions within nine of the livery companies of London originated within close proximity to the major trade routes.
  58. Ian Morton (University of Southampton) is using the data for his undergraduate dissertation. This research uses GIS to examine the position in the landscape of Pictish standing stones, some of which are suggested to be territorial markers.
  59. Martin Byers (University of Cambridge) is using the parish population and 1841-61 principal towns occupational data to reconstruct and analyse the occupational structure of a Poor Law Union in nineteenth-century London. The findings, along with maps produced using the 1851 parish and principal towns GIS shapefiles, will be included in a dissertation on the social and economic impact of the New Poor Law in London, which is being supervised by Dr Samantha Williams.
  60. L.R. Poos (Catholic University, Washington, D.C.) is (early 2015) in the early stages of two projects, for which he intends to use the GIS shapefiles for early county and hundred boundaries. One is a recreation of field systems and settlement in the Essex village of Stebbing from the late thirteenth to the late sixteenth century: the project will result in a GIS-based map down to the level of individual house site and field in the parish, and the Group-generated GIS files will be the basis for supporting maps illustrating patterns of trading and labour hire outside the parish, across the county and beyond. The other project is a study of contested marriage in sixteenth century Lancashire, and the Group's shapefiles will serve as base maps to illustrate comparative spatial analysis of gentry marriage distances between Lancashire and a few other counties for comparative purposes.
  61. Alexander Thomas (University of Bristol) is using the 1831 England and Wales census hundreds and wapentakes dataset as part of his doctoral research in Archaeology and Anthropology. He is supervised by Professor Mark Horton and Dr Stuart Prior. His research aims to move towards an archaeology of fuzzy borders by developing and implementing a methodology that examines the "archaeological visibility" and longevity of the Danelaw boundary from the late-9th century AD.
  62. Dustin Neighly (History Department, Rutgers University, USA) is writing a PhD dissertation examining the strategies that unfree peasants employed when dealing with the common law in late Medieval England. He plans to use the 1831 historic county data to visualize and investigate the relationship between the physical distribution of royal power and the variety of strategies employed by these peasants.
  63. Dr Guido Alfani is using the GIS shapefiles for and in the context of his project EINITE - Economic Inequality across Italy and Europe, 1300-1800, funded by the European Research Council. Specifically, he is working on geographic representations (per hundred and per county) of levels of economic inequality as measurable from a variety of English fiscal sources.
  64. The hundreds and wapentakes data will be used for a collaborative project by Dr. Austin Mason (Carleton College) and Dr. Tom Williamson (University of East Anglia), which explores the commonality of landscape setting between large pagan cremation cemeteries and later Christian mother-churches in Anglo-Saxon East Anglia. They are investigating how these sites are located in relation to the natural topography, and in particular how they relate to watersheds and drainage basins. They will use the 1831 hundreds boundaries to assess how closely these features follow the watersheds as a proxy for earlier territorial organisation.
  65. Jacob Weisdorf (University of Southern Denmark) and Sandra de Pleijt (Utrecht University) will use the Group's GIS boundary data to map evolution in the distribution of literacy rates in England across the 19th century.
  66. Dr Guido Alfani is using the database of Lay Subsidies for 1524-25 in the context of his project EINITE - Economic Inequality across Italy and Europe, 1300-1800, funded by the European Research Council. Specifically, he is working on long-term trends in income and wealth inequality, reconstructed from a variety of English fiscal sources.
  67. Balázs Spéder, Mauricio Rodriguez Acosta and Professor Sjak A. Smulders (Tilburg University, Netherlands) plan to use the county level occupational dataset for 1851 and the GIS boundary datasets for a project which will investigate the relation between land inequality and occupational diversity of manufacturing/service activities.
  68. Dr Toke Aidt (Economics, Cambridge), Dr Gabriel Leon (King's College London) and Dr Max Satchell (Geography, Cambridge) use the parish level census data in their study of the Swing Riots that took place in the Winter of 1830-31 and to the day stand out as one of the most significant rural uprising in British economic history. The riots spread fast through the hinterland south of London and up through East Anglia. This project studies the dynamics of the riots and tests alternative information spreading mechanisms.
  69. Dr W. Walker Hanlon (University of California, Los Angeles) is using the 1851 registration district boundaries in a project investigating the impact of industrial pollution on mortality in Britain in the second half of the 19th century. The project uses district occupation data from the Census of Population together with information on coal burning by industry from the Census of Production in order to infer the level of industrial coal use in each district. These industrial coal use measures can be comapred to mortality data from the Registrar General's reports in order to assess the impact of industrial pollution on mortality over the 1851-1900 period. The district boundary files are useful for this project because they allow him to describe graphically the variation in pollution and mortality across districts and to analyze the effects of pollution spillovers from industrial activity in one district to other nearby areas.
  70. Adriane Fresh (PhD Candidate in Political Science at Stanford University) is using the 19th century hundreds population data to understand the effect of industrialization on the characteristics of parliamentary representatives in the British Isles. The project tests how markers of industrialization -- including rapid population growth -- affect the ability of new economic elites to obtain political power, and the conditions under which old elites invest in entrenching their power to stave off competition.
  71. Professor Helen Berry (Newcastle) is using the PST coding system in a project 'The Occupational Destination of Foundling Hospital Children, c. 1751-1834', funded by a British Academy Small Grant (SG122254), to analyse the distribution of child labour, using data derived from the apprenticeship records of the London Foundling Hospital.
  72. Kayt Button (PhD candidate, University of Cambridge) is using the parish and registration district population data and GIS boundary data to track population and occupational changes prior to electricity becoming introduced and developed as an essential utility in the UK. The data will provide baseline data in a study which looks at the changes brought about in the UK by the introduction of the planned infrastructure of the National Grid.
  73. Patrick Wallis (LSE) will use the GIS shapefiles of historic English counties for research into the practice of apprenticeship training in early modern England.
  74. Stephan Heblich (Economics, University of Bristol), Steve Redding (Princeton) and Daniel Sturm (LSE) use data on the population and occupational structure of parishes to understand how the invention of the railway contributed to the emergence of a large metropolitan area like London.

  75. Stephan Heblich (Economics, University of Bristol), Alex Trew (Economics, St Andrews), and Yanos Zylberberg (Economics, University of Bristol) use the 1813-20 and 1881 parish-level datasets to understand how the rise of pollution during the industrialization changed the residential composition within cities.

  76. Stephan Heblich (Economics, University of Bristol) and Alex Trew (Economics, St Andrews) use data on the occupational structure of parishes in 1813-20 and 1881 to estimate the effect of local finance access in 1817 on secondary sector employment growth over the period 1817-1881.

  77. Stephan Heblich (Economics, University of Bristol) and Alex Trew (Economics, St Andrews) use data on the occupational structure of parishes and transportation networks in a project "Transport Infrastructure, Long-Run Development, and Policy: Evidence from England and Wales, c. 1817 to 2011", funded by an Institute of New Economic Thinking Grant (INO1500025), to analyse the long-run effect of transport infrastructure on economic development.

  78. Dr Joseph Day (University of Cambridge) has made extensive use of the '1851 England and Wales census parishes, townships and places' boundary GIS dataset in his thesis 'Leaving Home and Migrating in Nineteenth-Century England and Wales: Evidence from the 1881 Census Enumerators' Books (CEBs)' (University of Cambridge, 2014) - to analyse spatial variations on the process of leaving home and build complex spatial models of the process. This PhD relied on both the GIS, the digitised, coded, and corrected 1881 census data provided by the Cambridge Group to analyse the relationship between the socio-economic context and the process of leaving home. Spatial analysis of this data allowed the determinants to be clearly and precisely identified. The 1851 England and Wales census parishes, townships and places GIS dataset has also formed the basis for creating registration sub-districts for all censuses between 1851 and 1911 which allows us to map and analyse change over time and integrate the GIS with other datasets so that disparate sets of data can be analysed by matching them through the GIS.

  79. Prof Andrew Reynolds (UCL) and colleagues in the University of Nottingham and University of Winchester are using shapefiles of Ogilby's and Cary's roads of England as part of their three year Leverhulme-funded project 'Travel and Communication in Anglo-Saxon England' (2014-17) (Leverhulme Trust, Reference Number RPG-2014-074, amount £292,207). The project aims to reconstruct the overland and riverine route-system, using textual, landscape-archaeological, and onomastic evidence, of early medieval England.

  80. Prof. Richard Smith, Dr Romola Davenport and Gill Newton (Cambridge) are using the transport GIS datasets (turnpike roads, waterways and railways) and occupational datasets to study mortality patterns in Britain, 1600-1945. This is a Wellcome Trust-funded project 'Migration, mortality and medicalisation: the epidemiological consequences of urbanisation, 1600-1945' (June 2014 – May 2019, £1M). The study involves the analysis of changes in infectious disease patterns over time by settlement size and type. The occupational datasets are used to characterise settlements by economic activities, and the transport datasets provide dynamic measures of connectedness for individual settlements. Particular applications include network analysis of the diffusion of cholera in nineteenth century Britain by transport routes. In addition the transport datasets will be used to create an online 'Pathogen Journey Planner' for use in schools.

  81. Dr Alice Reid (Geography, Cambridge), Dr Eilidh Garrett and Prof Edward Higgs (University of Essex) have an ESRC funded project 'An Atlas of Victorian Fertility Decline', which is using the '1851 England and Wales census parishes, townships and places' boundary GIS dataset to help create boundaries for 1851 Registration Sub-Districts.

  82. Sandra de Pleijt, Alessandro Nuvolari and Jacob Weisdorf are using our occupational data for ca. 1813-1820. They are working on an empirical study of the relationship between industrialization and human capital formation during the first Industrial Revolution.

  83. Adriane Fresh (PhD Candidate in Political Science at Stanford University) is working on a research project that examines how economic change in 18th and 19th century Britain transformed the political class. To understand where and when economic change occurred in Britain, she plans to use measures of changing occupational structure. By connecting geo-spatial units in which occupations are measured to political units (electoral constituencies) she can test for how changes in the economy changed the political class.

  84. Jennifer Muller (University of Bristol) is undertaking a masters' dissertation on prehistoric settlement along the Severn Estuary at the River Avon. In particular she is examining the upland within Blaise Castle Estate, which contains several hilltop enclosures and other prehistoric features. It is thought that the River Avon might have been a boundary for the Dubonni Tribe. She hopes to use our dataset on the 1831 England and Wales census hundreds to help work out how prevalent boundaries are, especially when they are naturally formed, by working backwards in time.

  85. Prof Susan Pearce (Leicester) and Theresa Ormrod are creating a data-base of information relating to the early history of parish churches in southern Britain, AD 300-1050. This is intended to clarify what is known, or can reasonably be deduced, about their dating, origins, roles, changes over time, and relationships to natural and human topography. It will involve the use of documentary and archaeological records, including 'grey literature', maps, including tithe maps and early OS editions, and boundary information, including charters, parish boundaries from the HDS /University of Essex data, and the Cambridge Occupations Project data on Hundreds and Wapentakes, together with field work. The first focus will be on the Midland counties. This study was piloted by work on the parish churches of South Western Britain (see Pearce S, 2012, 'Early Medieval Ecclesiastical Sites in South-Western Britain: their Dates, Characters and Significance' Antiquaries Journal 92, 81-108).

  86. David Worsell (Archaeology, University of Winchester) is undertaking a doctoral thesis, supervised by Dr Nick Thorpe and Dr Simon Roffey, on the landscape and economy of early medieval Sussex. This will use the GIS-enabled mid-eleventh century hundredal boundary dataset, developed in a joint project (UCL, University of Nottingham and University of Winchester) and based on the Cambridge Group's nineteenth-century hundredal geography dataset.

  87. Estelle Overs (University of Cambridge) intends to use the GIS shapefiles of the parishes in Northumberland and Durham to map land and colliery ownership as part of a study of the Tyne valley coal industry in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

  88. Kayt Button (University of Cambridge) is using our 1911 railway lines and stations data to create a comparative GIS model of national infrastructure with a view to determining their spatial similarity. From these models she wants to explore the influences of fixed infrastructures already constructed on new infrastructures which are being considered and built. Investigations into intersections and routes taken by these infrastructures built over sequential timescales. Different analysis will be tested to try to determine the extent of overlap of national infrastructure, including telegraph/telephone, electricity, railway and roads initially and further infrastructures as data is available.

  89. William Farrell (Leicester) and Tim Reinke-Williams (Northampton) used the 1831 England and Wales ancient counties shapefile for their work on the migration of Welsh apprentices to early modern London. This helped them to analyse the geographical distribution of Welsh apprentices, and to test the effects of urbanisation and communications networks, using GIS software.

  90. Kinga Makovi (Columbia University, Sociology) uses the 1801 census data at the parish level to investigate the determinants of petitioning for the abolition of the slave trade at the parish and community levels. Kinga's dissertation, entitled "Social Structural Avenues for Mobilization – the Case of British Abolition," unpacks the popular anti-slavery movement considering factors of religiosity and industrial development. Without the census data from 1801 her work would be much harder, if not impossible to carry out. Kinga's work is funded by the NSF DDIG (#1435138).

  91. Prof. Ron Martin and Dr. Emil Evenhuis (Geography, Cambridge) have used the data on occupations at the town level for 1841 until 1871, as part of the ESRC-funded project 'Structural Transformation, Adaptability and City Economic Evolutions'. The project examines and explains the divergent economic growth paths of British cities in terms of their success (or lack of success) with regard to structural re-orientation and transformation. The 19th century occupational data provided historical background on patterns of structural transformation and economic specialisation during the period of industrialisation in selected cities, which are still reflected in the various ways these cities have coped with economic change in more recent decades.

  92. Aedrea-Anne McClure (LSE) is using the occupational data at the county level for 1813-1820 to compare the occupational distribution of the 1820 settlers who immigrated to South Africa under an assisted migration scheme from the British Isles. In particular, she is trying to assess the degree to which the settlers were positively or negatively selected in terms of skills and distressed occupations at both the national and county level and in comparison to other migrant streams which were unassisted.

  93. Toby Hrynick (Fordham University) is attempting to reconstruct historical landscape change in coastal Kent and Sussex during the High and Late Middle Ages, by layering soil maps, parish boundaries, dates of drainage from charters, crop information from manorial accounts, and existing tax records. He plans to use several of our boundary datasets to provide underlying structure onto which he can graft drainage information.

  94. Walter Jansson (Cambridge) is writing a thesis chapter on how the growth of financial institutions influenced economic growth in British counties from 1851 to 1911. Walter is using Campop's data on railway lines and stations from 1851 to 1911 in order to control for the effects that railways had on growth.

  95. Louise Roy (Oxford Brookes University) is using the ArcGIS shapefile providing boundary and attribute data for the hundreds, wapentakes, wards, divisions, liberties and boroughs of England and Wales as given in the 1831 census in her doctoral thesis, entitled 'Mapping Murder: a Socio-legal investigation of Homicide in Lancashire, c.1816-1914'. This project seeks to exploit GIS as a platform to collate, integrate and analyse geo-referenced, historical data that characterise spaces and places of homicide in order to investigate the role of space upon the circumstances in which murder occurred in Lancashire. With the aid of GIS it is hoped that the distribution and characteristics of homicide in Lancashire can be analysed in ways that are explicitly spatial, thereby deepening our understanding of the relationship between class, space and homicide in Victorian Lancashire.

  96. Vincent Delabastita (Research Centre of Economic History, KU Leuven) is affiliated with New approaches to the social dynamics of long-term fertility change (a concerted research action) and investigates the impact of the declining West-Flemish linen industry (mid-19th century) on socioeconomic mobility and fertility patterns. He is using our PST-lookup tables and translation from HISCO to PST to codify occupational titles found in West-Flemish parish and civil registers.

  97. Andrew C. Eggers, associate professor at the Department of Politics and International Relations, Oxford and a fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford uses 1813-20 occupational data from parish registers and census data for 1831 and and 1851, linked to the CamPop GIS. The project seeks to document and explain variation in the governing arrangements of local statutory authorities in the late 18th and early 19th century: some were governed by commissions of named local notables while others were much more broadly representative. The occupational data provide a measure of the economic character of the various places where these authorities arose.

  98. Luke Heppenstall-West (University of Cambridge) uses our occupational data in his undergraduate dissertation, as part of a study into contested space in Birmingham in the turn of the 19th Century, correlating parish-level data on changing occupations between 1817-1841 with the locations of public and private meetings. He aims to build upon existing literature by the likes of Asa Briggs and Charles Behagg on the role of Birmingham's unique early industrial occupational structure in its fledgling popular politics.

  99. Gabriel Byng (University of Cambridge) is using our 1831 ancient counties boundary data. The Digital Pilgrim II project seeks to quantify the distribution of medieval pilgrim badges in Britain by working with major collections around the country. For the first time, badges will be analysed alongside patterns in travel, wealth and demographics, providing new insights into cultures of pilgrimage in the medieval period. For more information contact Dr Gabriel Byng or Amy Jeffs. The project is sponsored by the Paul Mellon Centre.

  100. Arianna Ornaghi (MIT) is using the 1801-1881 quais-parish population dataset and the 1831 parish occupation dataset in a project looking at the effect of county police forces on economic development.

  101. Tom Breen (University of East Anglia) is using various boundary datasets in order to identify several parishes which will form the focus of his CHASE-funded thesis, 'Rights of way: cartographic and documentary evidence and its uses in legal disputes'. This data will provide a more accurate and representative sample from which the changing status of rights of way can be examined, particularly the connection between boundaries and the status of highways, carriageways, bridleways and footpaths.

  102. Professor Graeme Acheson (Stirling University) and Dr Gareth Campbell, Áine Gallagher and Professor John Turner (Queen's University Belfast) are using the British, Scottish and Welsh railway lines and stations data set for 1881. The project examines aspects of investor behaviour during the period 1870-1922 and the data will assist in mapping the extent of any local bias in investment decisions.

  103. Frances Richardson (University of Oxford) is using our occupational data from Welsh baptism registers 1813-20 in her PhD dissertation, to evaluate whether Nonconformist occupations in a sample of six Welsh hundreds mirrored those of wider society, or whether there were social status differences between denominations. She aims to refine our 1817 'occupational census' if necessary to take better account of the activities of Nonconformists.

  104. Bob Mitchell is using our 1831 census hundreds and wapentakes data as a background to the distribution of Round Tower Churches in East Anglia. Mitchell is creating a website of Round Tower Churches of the area and would like to include Hundred boundaries and look at their relationship to ancient boundaries.

  105. Matthew Hannaford (Utrecht University) is using our 1831 census hundreds and wapentakes data to map mortality variations in relation to data from tax records, as part of an ERC project looking into the impacts of climate variation on mortality patterns in early modern eastern England.

  106. Dr Katherine D. Watson (Oxford Brookes University) is using the ArcGIS shapefile of boundary and attribute data for the counties of England and Wales as given in the 1851 census in order to create a map highlighting the 22 counties included in her research project on 'Medicine and Justice: Medico-legal Practice in England and Wales, 1700-1914', funded by the Wellcome Trust (reference 082207/Z/07/Z). As the project nears completion, she wants to use maps to show the geographical range of forensic activity in the Victorian period, in relation to urban centres, using the town points dataset.

  107. Jacob F. Field (University of Cambridge) is using the parish-level GIS for mapping the levels of charitable generosity in 17th-century England, using the records of 'briefs' (nationwide or regional collections for good causes taken at the parish level). In addition, he is using the PST system for his ongoing work on London's male occupational structure, c. 1600-1900.

  108. Maps showing population density by parish for 1801 and 1891 have been reproduced in a major exhibition at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. The exhibition, "Settlers: Genetics, Geography and the Peopling of Britain", runs from 8 February to 16 September 2018 and is funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Arts Council. The population density data is being used in the section of the exhibition focussing on changing patterns of migration over the past 200 years. The maps help to visually tell the story of rural depopulation and the growth of Britain's urban centres during the nineteenth century.

  109. The ESRC-funded 'Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Small Businesses' project (PI Prof R.J. Bennett) has used the Continuous Parish GIS 1851-1891, 1851-1911, which derives from the Occupations Project EWCP shapefile, and the ESRC-funded 'An Atlas of Victorian Fertility Decline' project RSD GIS 1851-1911, which also derives from EWCP, in two ways. First to generate transport distance variables using the the Occupations Project dynamic rail and waterways GIS, and the Urbanisation and Transport Project ports, turnpikes and 1st class roads GIS. Second to generate estimates of the extent of woodland, urban and agricultural land grade 1-5 per. The urban data also used the Urbanisation and Transport Project's Town footprints GIS.

  110. Jonathan Chapman (New York University Abu Dhabi), Nuno Palma (University of Manchester) and Tim Besley (London School of Economics) are working on a project analysing the development of legal capacity in England and Wales. They will use the Campop GIS boundary data to map the development of the court system from the 16th century onwards.

  111. Jonathan Chapman (New York University Abu Dhabi) is working on a project investigating the relationship between local inequality and MP voting behaviour in nineteenth century England. He will use the Campop GIS Occupation Project data to develop inequality measures. He will also use the GIS boundary data to adjust data for the fact that different boundaries existed for local government and registration units.

  112. Louis Henderson (University of Oxford) is using the parish-level occupational and structural data in a Master's thesis to control for differences between parishes so that I can get at the effect of the introduction of savings banks c. 1817 on the savings/consumption habits of the poor. This data will hopefully make my results more robust and the included GIS will help me present my results more intuitively.

  113. PhD student Jonathan Oxley (Florida State University) is working on a project to analyze the cooperative movement of the 19th century. He is currently interested in what circumstances caused cooperatives to be created in the areas they were, and to economically analyze why the cooperative movement happened when it did.

  114. Theodore Read (University of Oxford) is writing a masters' thesis on the distribution of inventive activity across British towns and cities in the mid-19th century, using patent data. He hopes to use the 1841 - 61 principal towns data to assess the contribution of town occupational data to urban innovation.

  115. Casey Petroff, a PhD student at Harvard University, is working on a project investigating links between outbreaks of disease and support for public works projects. She plans to use maps of mid-19th century political boundaries in England and Wales to match datasets across different geographic units and to visualize patterns in the data.

  116. Alan Giddings, Archivist at St. Mungo's, a charity that helps homeless people in London, Bristol and the south of England, plans to use the project's data to look at population movement from outside London to the capital, people's trades when in London and where they lived (prior to the formation of the London County Council) and the borough they resided. He will include this information in social housing walks and informal lectures.

  117. Sandra de Pleijt (University of Oxford) will use the Group's GIS boundary dataset to chart the growth trajectory of grammar schools in England at the parish level between 1270 and 1700 to shed new light on the long-term development of the economy in the centuries before the Industrial Revolution.

  118. Dr Stuart Henderson (Dublin Institute of Technology) and Dr Linda Perriton (University of Stirling) are using the shapefiles to investigate the history of savings banks in the UK in the nineteenth century. The files will facilitate the production of maps to visualise key indicators.

  119. Dr David Sheppard is conducting private research into the demography of the Victorian Navy, based on the almost complete coverage of sailors in the 1861, 1881 and 1901 censuses and an Admiralty survey of seamen in 1851. The analyses provide maps of the birthplaces of many groups defined by occupation, age and marital status, including Ireland and Scotland, where birthplaces are usually listed in the naval returns. These CAD-based maps incorporate the GIS shapefiles of counties, with subdivisions where there are many sailors.

  120. The Cranborne Chase and Chalke Valley Landscape Partnership Scheme is a five year Heritage Lottery funded programme, running from 2019-2024. Harry Bell, who works for the Landscape Partnership, is using our ancient hundreds boundaries GIS in a Heritage Compendium. The Medieval systems of land division within the Landscape Partnership area have had a profound impact on the character of the landscape of the project area due to the effect on patterns of land ownership and control. A better understanding of the ancient hundreds in this area will help to understand the development of the landscape better.

  121. Victor Harlow, an ESRC funded PhD Candidate at Newcastle University, School of Education, is using GIS to analyse the spatial distribution of schools across Northumberland in the 19th century. He will be mapping population data to better understand the communities schools were serving. His focus is 1860-1890 to look at changes before and after the 1870 Education Act.

  122. Katie Bridger (Centre for English Local History, University of Leicester) is using the principal highways of England and Wales (1571) data in her PhD thesis on the influence of landscape and environment on gentry identity in late medieval Leicestershire. The data is contributing to her GIS maps which illustrate the proximity of primary routes and thoroughfares to Leicestershire, the Leicestershire gentry's manorial landholdings, and the role of highways in the formation of county boundaries.

  123. Jacob Moscona, a PhD student in Economics at MIT, is working on a project to identify the economic consequences of political reform (the Great Reform Acts) on economic activity in different regions as well as patterns of international trade. He is using our GIS boundary shapefiles in order to understand the distribution of political districts before and after the Great Reform Acts.

  124. Prof Manuel Eisner (Cambridge) uses parish and ward boundary data to plot homicide rates in the City of London in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, and to link homicide hotspots to spatial features of the city. The work is part of the 'London Medieval Murder Map' project.

  125. Talya Housman, a PhD student at Brown University, is using the seventeenth century GIS data to map how far individuals were travelling to litigate cases in the Sussex Quarter Sessions during the 1640s and 1650s. This is part of her dissertation project examining litigation of sexual crime and gendered violence during the Civil Wars and Interregnum.

  126. Francisco Beltrán Tapia (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) is working on a project to map child sex ratios in historical Europe (c.1850-1900). He plans to use our county boundary shapefiles to depict the situation in England and Wales and in Scotland and therefore compare it with other regions in Europe.