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Drivers of entrepreneurship and small business

Working papers

WP 1: Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Small Businesses: Project overview and outline of database construction

Bob Bennett, Harry Smith, Carry van Lieshout and Gill Newton, May 2017.

The census 1851-1911 provides information on employers and small firms that allows 200,000 - 2m individual entrepreneurs per year to be identified and the population of businesses to be estimated. This information has not been previously systematically available or researched. This paper outlines how information is extracted, how gaps and truncations in the I-CeM electronic records of the census are overcome, and how the data can be enriched. The paper outlines how entrepreneurship is defined from census and other records, how entrepreneurship rates can be calculated, and how a database has been created that is as complete and consistent as possible to be deposited at UKDA.

Downloadable working paper

WP2: Employers and the self-employed in the censuses 1851-1911: The census as a source for identifying SMEs, entrepreneurs, business numbers and size distribution

Bob Bennett, Harry Smith and Carry van Lieshout, May 2017.

This paper discusses how the original manuscript Census records can be used to derive information on employers and their workforce, self-employed sole proprietors, and the acreage of farms. It assesses how the content changes over time and has to be handled in database construction, focusing on issues of completeness; identification of employers, own account and workers; occupational coding; gender coverage; identification of portfolio businesses; partnerships; and location. This underpins database design for Entrepreneurs 1851-1911 to be deposited at UKDA.

Downloadable working paper

WP 3: Identifying businesses and entrepreneurs from the Censuses, 1851-1881

Carry van Lieshout , Bob Bennett, Harry Smith, and Gill Newton, May 2017.

This paper describes how individual entrepreneurs can be identified and extracted from the original Census Enumerators Books (CEBs) for 1851-81. It describes the early censuses and the method through which different groups of entrepreneurs can be identified, extracted and parsed, particularly focusing on identifying employee numbers of the businesses. It distinguishes between: employers with employees; own account proprietors; and people owning certain business assets. Constraints in the data are summarized and how information was infilled from other sources to correct for the substantial gaps and truncations in the I-CeM electronic records of the census.

Downloadable working paper

WP4: Identifying businesses and entrepreneurs from the Censuses, 1891-1911

Harry Smith, Bob Bennett, Carry van Lieshout and Gill Newton, May 2017.

This paper explains how employers and own account self-employed individuals can be extracted from the Census Enumerators Books (CEBs) for 1891-1911. The paper describes how they are identified, the issues arising, how miscoding in I-CeM is corrected, and how each census is cleaned and prepared for subsequent analysis. Detailed discussion covers quality of returns of business proprietor status, how far individuals had two or more statuses, the extent of biases in non- responses, and the geography of non-response. Use of occupation descriptors to clean the coding of employment status are steps towards database construction.

Downloadable working paper

WP 5: Business sectors, occupations and aggregations for business groups, 1851-1911

Bob Bennett, Harry Smith, Carry van Lieshout and Gill Newton, May 2017.

This paper discusses alternative aggregations that can be used to code business sectors using the census information on different occupations and employment status categories of entrepreneurs and workers. It defines two classifications at two levels of aggregation that are used in subsequent analysis: ID18 and ID50 used for sector/entrepreneurship coding; and EA17 and EA51 used for sector/whole economically active coding. It compares this coding with the more detailed coding in I-CeM, that used for the PST occupational classification system devised by Wrigley, and with the codes used in modern mainstream industrial classifications of sectors (SIC) and occupational groups. There is an accompanying data download of the classification file.

Downloadable working paper

Data download of classification file documented in WP 5

WP 6: Urban-Rural Classification using Census data, 1851-1911

Harry Smith and Bob Bennett, November 2017.

This paper develops an urban classification based on the census for 1851-1911 for England and Wales. The classification is based on the well-established Law-Robson urban classification but using the new data available from the e-version of the census. The paper discusses the Law-Robson criteria used to classify towns, and how urban parishes can be identified. The paper then presents the urban classification. An introduction to the documentation is given for possible data download.

Downloadable working paper

Published paper in Urban History

WP 7: Classification of towns in 1891 using factor analysis

Harry Smith, Bob Bennett and Dragana Radicic, November 2017.

This paper discusses how census data for 1851-1911 can be used to classify the occupations of the economically active population within Registration Sub-Districts (RSDs) for England and Wales 1851-1911 using a factor analysis methodology applied to all occupations. This paper is a pilot for 1891 for all occupied population, and by gender.

Downloadable working paper

This paper forms the basis for an Urban History article.

WP 8: Classification of occupations for economically active: Factor analysis of Registration Sub-Districts (RSDs) in 1891

Bob Bennett, Harry Smith and Dragana Radicic, November 2017.

This paper discusses how factor analysis can be used to classify the towns and urban areas in England and Wales of over 10,000 population using the occupational structure of their populations derived from census data for 1851-1911. The urban classification derives from working paper 6. This paper gives a classification by occupation for1891 as a pilot year for all occupied population, and by gender, as well as by employment status as worker, employer or own account self-employed.

Downloadable working paper

WP 9: Reconstructing entrepreneur and business numbers for censuses 1851-81

Bob Bennett, Piero Montebruno, Harry Smith and Carry van Lieshout, February 2018, revised version March 2019.

This paper discusses how census data for 1851-1881 can be reconstructed to give the employment status of individuals as own account self-employed, employers, or workers. The aim is to align information on entrepreneurs given in these earlier censuses with the information given in the later censuses from 1891 up to the present. The paper describes the reconstruction methods used and provides the essential background documentation for using the data at aggregate and individual level.

Downloadable working paper

WP 10: Classification of environments of entrepreneurship: Factor analysis of Registration Sub-Districts (RSDs) in 1891

Bob Bennett, Harry Smith and Dragana Radicic, August 2018.

This paper discusses how census data for 1851-1911 can be used to classify the employment status of the economically active population within Registration Sub-Districts (RSDs) for England and Wales using a factor analysis methodology based on 1891 as a pilot for other census years. Employment status in the 1891 census is given for (i) employers, (ii) those working on own account without employees, and (iii) workers.

Downloadable working paper

WP 11: Adjustment Weights 1891-1911: Weights to adjust entrepreneur numbers for non-response and misallocation bias in Censuses 1891-1911

Piero Montebruno, August 2018.

This paper explains the use of weights to adjust the Censuses 1891-1911 for non-response and misallocation bias. The weights are available for download (see below). The weights adjust observations to 'correct' values when using data from I-CeM for the entrepreneurs identified for 1891-1911. The paper documents of how to adjust and weight the data using the data download.

Downloadable working paper

Data set of Adjustment Weights for the 1891-1911 documented in WP 11

WP 12: Extraction of data on Entrepreneurs from the 1871 Census to supplement I-CeM

Carry van Lieshout, Joe Day, Piero Montebruno, and Bob Bennett, September 2018.

This paper describes how the database for entrepreneurs in the 1871 census was created and deposited for ESRC project ES/M010953. This project uses I-CeM as its main source. However, I-CeM does not cover England and Wales in 1871. This paper describes how data from an alternative supplier, S&N [theGenealogist.co.uk] was extracted and aligned with I-CeM to provide a full database for 1871.

Downloadable working paper

WP 13: Extracted data on employers and farmers compared with published tables in the Census General Reports, 1851-1881

Carry van Lieshout, Bob Bennett and Harry Smith, February 2019.

This paper compares published census tables for employers in England and Wales with extractions of individuals from the I-CeM and S&N sources. This is for non-farmers for 1851, and farmers for 1851-71, the only years that have published census tables for these data. The comparisons confirm a generally good match. Although there are some deficiencies possible from I-CeM/S&N data, the data are less ambiguous in definitions and more complete in some respects than achieved by published census tables, especially for larger firms and larger farms.

Downloadable working paper

WP 14: Company Directors: Directory and Census Record Linkage, 1881-1911

Carry van Lieshout, Bob Bennett, and Piero Montebruno, February 2019.

This paper describes how information on company directors has been identified in census records 1881-1911, and how this has been linked to directors listed in the Directory of Directors (DoD). Record linkage is used to match DoD, achieving a 36% match rate overall for 18,200 directors. The paper also defines the coding of business sectors, locations, and roles played by the directors in each company.

Downloadable working paper

WP 15: Entrepreneurial discrete choice: Modelling decisions between self-employment, employer and worker status

Bob Bennett, Piero Montebruno, Harry Smith, and Carry van Lieshout, February 2019.

A model between different forms of business organisation is estimated, focusing on the choice to operate as an entrepreneur as a sole proprietor on own account, or as an employer, rather than as a waged employee. The paper shows that marital status, gender, family structure, and spatial location are key factors behind differences between entrepreneurs and waged workers.

Downloadable working paper

WP 16: Constructing Parish-level Data and RSD-level Data on Transport Infrastructure in England and Wales 1851-1911

Max Satchell, Bob Bennett, Dan Bogart and Leigh Shaw-Taylor, February 2019.

This paper documents the methods used to construct a database at parish and RSD-level of transport infrastructure in England and Wales for each census year 1851-1911: for ports; turnpike roads (1851 only); first class roads (1911 only); railway lines and stations; waterways; and presence of sea coasts.

Downloadable working paper