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Drivers of entrepreneurship and small business


  • Smith, H. Bennett, R.J., van Lieshout, C.  and Montebruno, P. 2020. Households and entrepreneurship in England and Wales, 1851–1911, The History of the Family.
  • Smith, H., Bennett, R.J. and van Lieshout, C. 2020. Entrepreneurship in Birmingham and Manchester, 1851-1911: A Tale of Two Cities?, Midland History.
  • Montebruno, P. Bennett, R.J., Smith, H. and van Lieshout, C. 2020. Machine learning classification of entrepreneurs in British historical census data, Information Processing & Management, 57, 3
  • van Lieshout, C., Bennett, R.J. and Smith, H., 2020.  The British Business Census of Entrepreneurs and firm-size,1851-1881: New data for economic and business historians, Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History.
  • van Lieshout, C., Smith, H. and  Bennett, R.J., 2020. Female entrepreneurship in England and Wales, 1851-1911. Chapter 3, in: Female Entrepreneurs in the Long Nineteenth Century: Towards a Global Perspective, eds. J. Aston and C. Bishop (Palgrave Macmillan).
  • van Lieshout, C., Smith, H., Montebruno, P. and  Bennett, R.J., 2019. Female Entrepreneurship: Business, Marriage and Motherhood in England and Wales, 1851-1911, Social History, 44.4 (Nov 2019).
  • Smith, H., Bennett, R.J. and van Lieshout, C., 2019. Immigrant Business Proprietors in England and Wales (1851-1911), Continuity and Change, 34/2, 253-76.http://doi: 10.1017/S0268416019000171
  • Bennett, R.J., Smith, H., van Lieshout, C., Montebruno, P., Newton, G., 2019. The Age of Entrepreneurship: Business proprietors, self-employment and corporations since 1851. Routledge International Studies in Business History, London and New York.
  • Montebruno, P., Bennett, R.J., van Lieshout, C., Smith, H., 2019. Research data supporting “A  tale of two  tails:  Do Power Law and Lognormal models fit  firm-size distributions  in the mid-Victorian era?”. Mendeley Data http://doi:10.17632/86xkkncmw3.1
  • Montebruno, P., Bennett, R.J., van Lieshout, C., Smith, H. and Satchell, M., 2019. Shifts in agrarian entrepreneurship in mid-Victorian England and Wales. Agricultural History Review, 67, 71-108. Online link
  • Montebruno, P., Bennett, R.J., van Lieshout, C. and Smith, H., 2019. A tale of two tails: Do Power Law and Lognormal models fit firm-size distributions in the Mid-Victorian era? Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, accepted February 2019.
  • Bennett. R.J., Smith, H. and Montebruno, P., 2018. The Population of Non-Corporate Business Proprietors in England and Wales 1891-1911, Business History, accepted October 2018. 
  • Smith, H., Bennett, R.J. and Radicic, D., 2018. Towns in Victorian England and Wales: a new classification. Urban History, 45, 4, pp. 568-594.
  • Radicic, D., Bennett, R.J. and Newton, G., 2017. Portfolio entrepreneurship in farming: Empirical evidence from the 1881 census for England and Wales. Journal of Rural Studies, 55, 289-302. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.08.019
    Download of split workforces for each portfolio business 1881 
  • Bennett, R.J., 2016. Interpreting business partnerships in late Victorian Britain. Economic History Review, v. 69, p.1199-1227. doi:10.1111/ehr.12327
  • Bennett, R.J. and Newton, G., 2015. Employers and the 1881 population census of England and Wales. Working paper now published with more detail in Local Population Studies, p.29-49.

Earlier publications on modern SMEs, entrepreneurship and business history